We are publishing this article in 2023, the year when the 150th anniversary of the birth of the French geographer is celebrated, the article being a tribute to Emmanuel de Martonne’s work in Romania, especially for his contribution to the research of the Transylvanian Alps (the Southern Carpathians). Of the two doctoral theses that the French geographer elaborated on the territory of Romania, the last one, defended in 1905 and published in 1907 at the Sorbonne University in Paris, was dedicated to the geomorphological evolution of the Transylvanian Alps (the Southern Carpathians). Of the 14 field campaigns that Emmanuel de Martonne carried out in Romania, eight were carried out in the Southern Carpathians (Banat Massif, Transylvanian Massif) and in the neighboring regions closely related in their paleogeographical evolution to the Transylvanian Alps (the Subcarpathian area of Oltenia, the Subcarpathian area of Muntenia, and Mehedinți Plateau). For the French geographer, the transverse valleys of the Southern Carpathians were examples indicating the extensive tectonic movements that affected the territory of Romania in the Paleogene and Neogene. Glacial influences and relief forms in the high part of the Southern Carpathians became the main concern of the French geographer for at least a decade of research in Romania. More obviously, in some parts of the Southern Carpathians, the action of glaciation cut out specific shapes within the platform of the high peaks (Borăscu planation platform). In the research in Parâng Mountains, Emmanuel de Martonne aimed to identify some key evidence of glaciation: glacial cirques, lakes, valleys, thresholds, glacial grooves, glaciated knobs, and moraines. Above all, the French geographer believed that the general topography of the valleys and cirques is the fundamental element that certifies glaciation and the presence of lateral cirques justifies the succession of glacial periods.
This paper aims to establish the role of the local topography of Sălcuța Plain (subdivision of the Oltenia Plain) in the subsidence process of loess-like deposits. The relevant features of the topography, especially the slope, were generated using SAGA GIS v.7.8.0 and QGIS v.3.22 software based on an altimetric terrain model. The results obtained highlight the fact that 303 microdepressions were formed following the chemical and mechanical subsidence of the loess deposits. The most important characteristic, which conditions the genesis of the subsidence process and implicitly the formation of microdepressions, is the slope; in this case, the subsidence process occurs in areas where the slope has values lower than 2 degrees. The research advanced by generating the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) in order to identify areas with moisture excess, the moistening of loess-like deposits being one of the basic conditions in the genesis of the subsidence process. The highest values of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), over 10, were recorded in the areas with microdepressions.
Plagiarism and copyright infringement are intrinsically connected. The paper examines EU law in this area, depicts different types of plagiarism and copyright offences as well as different types of penalties. The focus is on higher education plagiarism and the use of several types of anti-plagiarism software to tackle that problem. Several controversies have been examined and recommendations offered on avoiding some of the common problems.
The rapid growth of urban areas and the increase in sealed surfaces have significant implications for environmental management and urban planning. Monitoring and quantifying sealed surfaces are crucial for understanding urbanization processes and their impacts. This article deals with the issues of mapping the dimension of soil sealing in Craiova city, during the last two decades using GIS and remote sensing techniques. As the Normalized Difference Builtup Index (NDBI) has emerged as a valuable tool for assessing sealed surfaces and evaluating urban expansion, it was selected as preferred method selected to determine the dimension of soil sealing.
The tourist infrastructure built during the Communist period on the Romanian seaside had a toilsome opening towards all-inclusive services, in 2023 less than 15% of the total number of hotels offering AI or AIL services. For the last 20 years, many Romanian tourists have become loyal to destinations abroad, easily accessible, some of them known to offer predominantly all-inclusive services. Using semi-structured interviews, the study analyzes the perception of a sample of Romanian tourists related to the development of the all-inclusive system on the Romanian seaside. Applying the thematic analysis procedure, 3 main themes emerged regarding the AI system: diversity, benefits for families and quality issues. Based on them, implications for managers and other stakeholders are discussed.
This research analyses whether the use of an effective method/technique, as support in the educational process, can make pupils better understand the concepts learned in Geography classes and be more effective in practical tests. Thus, this research is based on the design and use of the method of graphic organizers in the teaching-learning-evaluation lessons, which allows the fixation and thorough consolidation of pupils’ knowledge in the discipline of Geography, 7th grade. The research method used was the questionnaire, which was applied to an experimental sample (7th grade A) and a control sample (7th grade B), the pupils being from the countryside school in Dolj County, Romania. Statistical data were analyzed using SPSS Statistical Software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and provided valuable insights in understanding the relationships between the studied variables and the research hypotheses. We consider this technique, being new, attractive and innovative in the Romanian education system, for the development of the spirit of observation in pupils, the increase of attention, imagination and memory, the amplification of investigative capacity, organization in thinking but also in deeds (creativity and thinking free).
This study highlights the relationship between the dynamics of the hydrological regime in a river basin and the morphodynamic potential that appears in the context of increasing frequency and intensity of current climatic phenomena. Climate change characterized by the high frequency and intensity of torrential rains and floods, especially in the last decade, with a maximum amplitude in the summer months (June-July), alternating with periods of drought have brought to a series of geomorphological changes in the Gilort river basin. These processes are amplified by the high degree of fragmentation of the relief, by the presence of springs that feed the hydrographic network and by the important rainfall contribution to the formation of river flows. In the high mountainous area of the basin, there are a series of debris flows that have been triggered in the last ten years, during torrential rains and exceptional floods, by major changes in the land cover and by the transport of materials in the drainage section. At the exit of the mountain, the longitudinal profile of the river changes radically with the decrease of the slope, so that most of the coarse alluvium is deposited in the riverbed in the sectors of the contact depressions at the foot of the mountain. At the contact between the mountains and the Subcarpathian Depression, due to a pronounced decrease of the riverbed slope, the phenomenon of bed aggradation occurs. In this study, all these geomorphological processes are explained from the perspective of hydrological and climatic influence combined with changes in land cover.
The use of groundwater to supply water to citizens is an important component of a country’s security strategy, as groundwater is less vulnerable to pollution and can be used even in difficult climatic conditions. Groundwater catchments involve additional investment in research, compared to surface water catchments, because they use an underground source that must be identified through geological and hydrogeological research: the aquifer. From the geological and hydrogeological studies that were carried out in the area, the conclusion is that these aquifers can appear at depths between 15 and 120 m and there is a possibility that they manifest themselves artesian.
This paper presents the general organization of a Dugesiidae population from Dăbuleni locality (SW Romania) with emphasis on the anatomy of the copulatory apparatus. The copulatory apparatus is characterized by intermingled bursal canal musculature and two distinct penis bulbs with two large seminal vesicles. The copulatory apparatus is also characterised by the presence of an atrial fold, feature typical of Schmidtea mediterranea (Benazzi, Baguñà, Ballester, Puccinelli, Del Papa 1975). The characteristics of the copulatory apparatus of the investigated population are comparatively discussed with all the other Schmidtea species. Data on the reproductive biology are also given. The presence of Schmidtea mediterranea in SW Romania is discussed in relation with the paleogeographic evolution of land and aquatic basins of Europe. The possibility that the Schmidtea population from Dăbuleni (SW Romania) be a candidate for a new species is also considered.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, pre-university education was organized either on a new online model or on a traditional model, carried out on a series of educational learning platforms and using various open educational resources. Taking as a starting point the research published worldwide about the educational process during the pandemic period, we present and discuss the similarities and differences regarding the educational process of learning-assessment at the pre-university level, with reference to the subject of geography. To achieve our goal, we conducted a review of the literature on articles dealing with traditional pre-university education and the online model during the pandemic, taking into account our personal teaching-learning-assessment experience on this topic, as well as the perception of teachers. This study comparatively evaluates the students’ learning about the results obtained in the two teaching-learning-assessment models and the perspective of the teachers through a survey of their reflection on the experiences of the pandemic period, identifying the causes, effects and solutions. The observations of the experiment and the analysis of the questionnaire showed significant similarities and differences between the scores obtained by the students and how the learning platforms can facilitate teaching and learning. This study discusses the implications and proposes suggestions for further research on these findings.
Guest books are acknowledged as a means of public dialogue and have been used as a source of information regarding visitor experiences in museums. The current paper focuses on an exploratory case study, namely the experiences visitors have at the Iron Gates Hydro-electrical power plant in Romania. According to the classification of Pekaric et.al. 1999 and using the entries in the visitor books for 12 months, the study highlights the fact that while Object experinces are dominant, there is no doubt that for quite many visitors, there is a feeling of pride and ownership obvious in their short narratives.
The research provides an overview of rural tourism current situation in Vâlcea county, focusing on the existing natural and man-made tourism resources and also on the perception of travellers on this type of tourism, as well as a quantitative analysis of tourism in the area. An online survey underlined the benefits of this type of tourism on rural communities and development, such as employment and income growth, social and economic improvement and revitalization of crafts and traditions. Moreover, rural tourism can be an experience in the countryside, encompassing a wide range of attractions and activities that take place in the northern non-urban areas of the county. The rural tourist activities can be very well associated with ecotourism, cultural and heritage tourism and adventure and sport tourism. Thus, rural tourism can have major implications for the economic, social and cultural development of the traditional villages in the studied county.
The current pandemic situation has shown many shortcomings in areas that are on the margins of society. The development of education, not only in Slovakia, has a great potential to achieve an increase in knowledge. The present paper summarizes the results of a survey on the situation at the time of the pandemic, when the schools were closed. The survey lasted 21 days, during which it reached the attendance of 1 416 people. Seven of the questions in the survey aimed at finding out the form in which distance learning was carried out at that time, while three questions focused on the preparation of both teachers and students for teaching activities. The questionnaire included a total of 17 questions. The results showed in how many schools distance education was implemented, how teachers and students evaluate the distance and full-time education system. The most valuable part of the survey is the subjective opinions of respondents on the mentioned issues. The overall success rate of the questionnaire was 36,9%, which represents 522 participants.
The pre-university educational system should be based on an educational approach in which the teaching, learning and evaluation methods aim to turn the student into an active agent in the learning process. This study is an attempt to evaluate the use of a personal learning environment based on the Google application – the Forms tool to support teaching and learning in the teaching-learning direction sequence, identifying the effects by calculating the magnitude of tests. The results showed that students who benefited from the teaching-learning model with the Google Forms tool registered better results in evaluation.
Climate change and the impacts of anthropogenic activity on climate in Europe is documented in many scientific publications but the investigations about climate impact and particularly urban climate are relatively few for Bulgaria. The present paper investigates the variability of seasonal and annual air temperature in Sofia city and surrounding areas (towns Bankya and Bozhurishte) for the period 1961-2015 based on the linear regression method. In order to investigate the urban heat island (UHI) intensity, the air temperature difference between the city and its surroundings is calculated. The study shows increase of air temperature difference between the city and suburban territories during the recent years. The linkages between the observed variability of air temperature difference and atmospheric circulation and urbanization are investigated.
Dealing with a slowdown in economic growth is something that no country wants to be concerned with. Neither do countries want to face the reality of widening gaps in income or the realities that attend changes in the climate that we are experiencing in the world today. This study focuses on these issues and makes an attempt to find solutions to them. First there are discussed the negative impacts that climate change has on economic growth and income inequality. It is the author’s contention that if a solution can be found to the various problems connected to climate change, solutions to these other problems will be found. The paper ends with a discussion of the role that business can play in finding solutions to the problems regarding climate change.
GIS (Geographic information System) techniques, characterized by high accuracy of mapping and measurement, prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis. The main goal of the study is to analyze the hydrographic network in linear form (vector) by overlaying databases from different periods (vector layer made in 2003 and layer made in 2017) for a regional case study within Southwestern Romania. The database organized in layers aims to reproduce characteristics of the drainage network: the cartographic maps scale 1: 100.000, Geo-referenced in ArcGIS 10.4); the first version of the hydrographic network used in the first River Basin. The results of this analysis will be concentrated on the length of the river network correlated with the two layers and also on the relief based on a DTM (cell size 5×5 m) within the study area. The relevance of the discussions lies in highlighting the differences appeared over time regarding the hydrographic network spatially using GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis.
This study aims to evaluate the perception of the population regarding the potential danger generated by earthquakes in Craiova. Although it is located at a significant distance from the main seismic region of Romania (i.e. about 400 km from Vrancea), Craiova Municipality is still in an area with seismic risk according to the National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics (NIEP/INFP in Romanian). Regarding the seismic area in Romania, Craiova is classified at an 8 level on the MSK scale (according to Law no. 575/2001); moreover, the strong earthquakes produced in the last half-century had some notable effects on the territory of the municipality. In Craiova, the deficiencies concerning the anti-seismic education, the condition of the old constructions that are still used, the non-conforming structural changes brought to the buildings, etc. may increase the risk of an earthquake of medium and high magnitude. The present paper is based on the random sampling of 120 people from Craiova Municipality regarding their perception of earthquakes. It was found that half of them experienced at least one major earthquake (particularly that of 1977, which caused significant property damage and fatalities). The personal experience of such an earthquake or the participation in the simulative exercises of an earthquake in the city determines some of the respondents consider that they have learned how to behave during an earthquake. On the other hand, some of the respondents (especially the single or retired ones) expressed their lack of trust in the help they could receive during an earthquake.
Large and powerful animals represent a source of fear and fascination for humans and influence the evolution of culture, civilization and science. Although the maximum size reached by such beasts has been the subject of intense controversy, little scientific interest has been given to distinguish reality from fiction. Therefore, the goal of our study was to identify the largest specimens of the contemporary mega fauna. In order to do so, we have a) selected the most representative species and identified the largest specimens through a scientific literature synthesis, b) reconstructed their distinctive physical features through detailed handmade drawings, and c) analyzed their location in relation to the distribution of reserves and intact ecosystems. Our results indicate that the maximum size reached by large water predators, such as sharks and crocodiles, has been much more documented compared to large land carnivores and herbivores. Almost all of the exceptionally large specimens identified were located in protected areas. In several cases, such as the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), the largest individuals have been identified in the last couple of decades. The results represent a true statement concerning the importance of preserving mega fauna species, and reveal that, despite increasing human population and pressure over the natural environment, the beast of the animal world can still survive in modern times, due to the conservation of large wild habitats through networks of protected areas.
The planning and management of the Bucegi Mountains require tools which allow a broad and essential view in order to identify the tendencies and promotion of some balanced projects of development. Based on the connection between the development of tourism, specific activities and touristic destination, the Bucegi Mountains capitalize the presence of some touristic facilities and technical-utility features which may ease the capitalisation, mainly, of the natural potential – support for the practice of various forms of tourism: mountainous tourism, recreation tourism, adventure tourism, cave diving, etc. The most important principles of sustainable tourism can be applied to all forms of tourism, including the niche tourism. Consequently, the way some forms of tourism are practised in natural reserve areas must maintain the essential ecological process, so as the aesthetical values or the cultural authenticity of the host communities to promote the traditional values or the cultural-historical patrimony. Thus, sustainable tourism must contribute to the reduction of the risk of poverty in the local communities.
Population ageing is occurring on more extensive areas worldwide, is affecting rural areas with greater intensity and at a faster pace than ever. This study aims to evaluate the main demographic changes and their social consequences in post-communist Romania, highlighting the particularities of rural decline phenomenon and taking into account regional and gender-related patterns and causalities. Unfavourable demographic trends recorded in rural Romania emphasize the urgent necessity to address the complex processes associated with rural depopulation through national, regional or even local solutions and approaches.
The present paper aimed to render the correlation between the climatic conditions and forest vegetation within the Subcarpathian area, based on specific bioclimatic indices. In order to emphasize this correlation, there were analysed the spatial distribution and temporal variability of three indices – “De Martonne” aridity index (Ia), Ellenberg Quotient (EQ) and the forestry aridity index (FAI). The average monthly and annual temperature and precipitation data cover a period of 58 years (1961-2018). Based on the average values of the three indices it resulted that the central and eastern parts of the study area, with lower altitudes, is more suitable for the development of thermophilic species (oak, but also other deciduous species), while the western part, as well as at higher altitudes, beech (Fagus silvatica) and even coniferous species find proper conditions. The results indicate a good correlation among different bioclimatic indexes and between bioclimatic indexes and CLC 2018 classes of vegetation cover. In terms of temporal evolution, there Were not identified any statistically significant trends for the analyzed indices, mainly due to the fact that temperature increase in the area was also accompanied by the increase of the precipitation amount.
The study highlights the significance of the toponyms and their use in time within the Parâng Mountains, their diversity (oiconyms, geomorphonyms, hydronyms, hodonyms, anthroponyms, hileonyms), their preservation or loss over time. An important aspect is the difference between the toponyms on cartographical materials and their location and names assigned by the locals.
Sustainable cities base their existence on urban green spaces. These places are
intended to provide high quality services for the recreational activity of urban dwellers. At present, most of the green spaces became overcrowded and intensely used. The analysis of recreational quality was carried out in the Botanical Garden of Craiova, which offered us the perfect experimental area for the study. The Botanical Garden is surrounded by blocks of apartments and intensely inhabited areas. There has been recorded an increased number of visitors as a result of the degradation and disappearance of smaller green areas in the neighborhoods like Craiovita and Brestei. Thus the Botanical Garden became the place that serves almost exclusively one third of the city dwellers of 5 surrounding territorial units of Craiova. For this reason, we proposed a set of criteria for the analysis and assessment of recreational quality of green spaces, namely overloading, satisfaction and shift addressability.
This criteria would explain why urban densification around the green areas contributed to the reduction of its recreational quality. The final outcomes of the study can contribute to a better management of overcrowded urban green areas. It may also be a useful tool for local authorities and city planners.
The subject of certification and certification systems is a vast, complex and at the same time topical subject, in recent years being increasingly associated with tourism and especially ecotourism. The concept of ecotourism and other sustainable forms of tourism have their origins in the ecological movement of the 1970s. Ecotourism became relevant in the late 1980s, after the Manila Conference on World Tourism in the 1981, where it was unequivocally stated that tourism causes more harm than good to people and destinations. To avoid this, emphasis has been placed on the development of ecotourism, that form of tourism that is often in a convergent relationship with nature. In turn, certification systems are processes designed to encourage and reward firms that choose to produce or market products that use the highest social and environmental standards in their production. Obtaining them involves consulting with a variety of stakeholders and uses primarily a performance-based system, but also a third-party audit. They may also include the creation or implementation of a management system to help establish better and more efficient environmental procedures. The basic purpose or motto of this type of program can be characterized as a risk reduction.
Maramureș County has many attractions, but only some of them can generate a significant number of foreign visitors and can be considered tourism assets. Most of them and all the supporting infrastructure need further development. Common identified problems include a high number of facilities that are less developed, lack of proper marketing and tourism interpretation. The existing businesses of rural tourism that may serve this tourist market could improve their products in order to capture a larger share of visitors, overnights and spendings. Overall, the lodging establishments, mainly the rural boarding houses, which are dominant in the area, record a number above the national average level with no need for construction of new establishments as the hotels; the tourist flows are dominantly national. Rural tourism proves to be vitally important to the economy of the county, the visitors spending having a high impact in most of the communities. The tourism development should focus on a better system for implementation of marketing and interpretation programs such as thematic routes, common marketing strategy, county collaboration and creation of common web, mobile and print materials. All these measures can help and revitalize the family businesses in the rural areas of Maramureș.
Tourists tend to choose natural areas as a destination for leisure and relaxation and Domogled-Cerna Valley National Park constantly “provides” these opportunities. It stands out due to its natural heritage, but the specificity of the area is given by the presence of picturesque isolated human settlements on the ridges of Cerna Mountains, the isolated hamlets belonging to Cornereva in Caraș-Severin county, known for being the largest commune in Romania in terms of number of villages. The main objective of this research derives on the one hand, from the necessity to emphasize the remarkable potential of the studied area, with endemic species, mountain trails with different degrees of difficulty, ecotourism activities and unique experiences, but moreover to draw attention to its fragility.
The dynamics of the cultural – artistic phenomenon in Dolj County involves the identification of the forms of cultural manifestations carried out in the last five years in this area, the presentation of the main events of this kind from the county, with reference to the existing human resources necessary for such manifestations. The main purpose of this research is to do a “radiography” of the cultural phenomenon in Dolj County, in order to discover future trends that can lead to the development of the current, but also to propose some directions to diversify the existing supply based on which the number and diversity of tourists can multiply. The analyzed period is that of the last six years (2014-2019). It will be noted that the current cultural product is made up of various elements, with different forms (touchable or untouchable), services and infrastructure in a process of continuous development, which can outline together a future local brand (specific to human settlements), area or even county. The cultural – artistic manifestations generate cultural industry and default tourism. The cultural tourism is an unique and diverse economic phenomenon, which comprises a number of complex investments designed to attract, receive and satisfy the needs of consumers.
Most scientific works define “method” as a “path towards” reaching the goals envisaged by teaching activities, for a more efficient educational process. The work focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of using the method “Gallery Tour”, a method included in the category of “collaboration-based learning techniques”, and the method “I know/I want to know/I have learned”, a method falling under “techniques for developing critical thinking” in teaching the informative content “Biopedoclimatic areas” included in the syllabus for the 9th grade, in the learning unit “Life and Soils on Earth”. Collaboration-based learning techniques determine competition-based learning experiences. The mechanical reproduction of information is avoided, but there is the disadvantage that some students may have a passive attitude and an unequal participation in solving work tasks. Such methods prevent monotony and boredom. Techniques for developing critical thinking imply understanding the information and the reasoning. Students analyse ideas logically, argue, ask, accept or reject information. They observe, judge, state judgments of value. Such techniques stimulate the students’ curiosity.
Within both methods, knowledge is acquired through personal effort, passed through their own experience, through the filter of their thinking. They understand and reproduce them according to their age specificities. “The Gallery Tour” and “I know/I want to know/I have learned that” stimulate the students’ curiosity and interest for finding out new information, as efficient, active learning methods.
Romanescu Park represents one of the main natural areas for leisure and urban comfort in Craiova. The study aims at analyzing the ecological footprint of the park through the calculation of the absolute values, by the ratio of ecological effective surface to the number of visitors on specific time intervals (daily, weekly, monthly). The paper is also focused on the identification of the main visiting corridors (pressure corridors) of the park area. The main findings of the research can contribute to the identification of the critical areas and to the rehabilitation, regeneration and improvement of degraded natural biotopes of the park. It can also become a useful tool for local authorities in order to increase the quality of natural biota and general recreational comfort of this urban green area.