The present paper aimed to render the correlation between the climatic conditions and forest vegetation within the Subcarpathian area, based on specific bioclimatic indices. In order to emphasize this correlation, there were analysed the spatial distribution and temporal variability of three indices – “De Martonne” aridity index (Ia), Ellenberg Quotient (EQ) and the forestry aridity index (FAI). The average monthly and annual temperature and precipitation data cover a period of 58 years (1961-2018). Based on the average values of the three indices it resulted that the central and eastern parts of the study area, with lower altitudes, is more suitable for the development of thermophilic species (oak, but also other deciduous species), while the western part, as well as at higher altitudes, beech (Fagus silvatica) and even coniferous species find proper conditions. The results indicate a good correlation among different bioclimatic indexes and between bioclimatic indexes and CLC 2018 classes of vegetation cover. In terms of temporal evolution, there Were not identified any statistically significant trends for the analyzed indices, mainly due to the fact that temperature increase in the area was also accompanied by the increase of the precipitation amount.
The study highlights the significance of the toponyms and their use in time within the Parâng Mountains, their diversity (oiconyms, geomorphonyms, hydronyms, hodonyms, anthroponyms, hileonyms), their preservation or loss over time. An important aspect is the difference between the toponyms on cartographical materials and their location and names assigned by the locals.
Sustainable cities base their existence on urban green spaces. These places are
intended to provide high quality services for the recreational activity of urban dwellers. At present, most of the green spaces became overcrowded and intensely used. The analysis of recreational quality was carried out in the Botanical Garden of Craiova, which offered us the perfect experimental area for the study. The Botanical Garden is surrounded by blocks of apartments and intensely inhabited areas. There has been recorded an increased number of visitors as a result of the degradation and disappearance of smaller green areas in the neighborhoods like Craiovita and Brestei. Thus the Botanical Garden became the place that serves almost exclusively one third of the city dwellers of 5 surrounding territorial units of Craiova. For this reason, we proposed a set of criteria for the analysis and assessment of recreational quality of green spaces, namely overloading, satisfaction and shift addressability.
This criteria would explain why urban densification around the green areas contributed to the reduction of its recreational quality. The final outcomes of the study can contribute to a better management of overcrowded urban green areas. It may also be a useful tool for local authorities and city planners.
The subject of certification and certification systems is a vast, complex and at the same time topical subject, in recent years being increasingly associated with tourism and especially ecotourism. The concept of ecotourism and other sustainable forms of tourism have their origins in the ecological movement of the 1970s. Ecotourism became relevant in the late 1980s, after the Manila Conference on World Tourism in the 1981, where it was unequivocally stated that tourism causes more harm than good to people and destinations. To avoid this, emphasis has been placed on the development of ecotourism, that form of tourism that is often in a convergent relationship with nature. In turn, certification systems are processes designed to encourage and reward firms that choose to produce or market products that use the highest social and environmental standards in their production. Obtaining them involves consulting with a variety of stakeholders and uses primarily a performance-based system, but also a third-party audit. They may also include the creation or implementation of a management system to help establish better and more efficient environmental procedures. The basic purpose or motto of this type of program can be characterized as a risk reduction.
Maramureș County has many attractions, but only some of them can generate a significant number of foreign visitors and can be considered tourism assets. Most of them and all the supporting infrastructure need further development. Common identified problems include a high number of facilities that are less developed, lack of proper marketing and tourism interpretation. The existing businesses of rural tourism that may serve this tourist market could improve their products in order to capture a larger share of visitors, overnights and spendings. Overall, the lodging establishments, mainly the rural boarding houses, which are dominant in the area, record a number above the national average level with no need for construction of new establishments as the hotels; the tourist flows are dominantly national. Rural tourism proves to be vitally important to the economy of the county, the visitors spending having a high impact in most of the communities. The tourism development should focus on a better system for implementation of marketing and interpretation programs such as thematic routes, common marketing strategy, county collaboration and creation of common web, mobile and print materials. All these measures can help and revitalize the family businesses in the rural areas of Maramureș.
Tourists tend to choose natural areas as a destination for leisure and relaxation and Domogled-Cerna Valley National Park constantly “provides” these opportunities. It stands out due to its natural heritage, but the specificity of the area is given by the presence of picturesque isolated human settlements on the ridges of Cerna Mountains, the isolated hamlets belonging to Cornereva in Caraș-Severin county, known for being the largest commune in Romania in terms of number of villages. The main objective of this research derives on the one hand, from the necessity to emphasize the remarkable potential of the studied area, with endemic species, mountain trails with different degrees of difficulty, ecotourism activities and unique experiences, but moreover to draw attention to its fragility.
The dynamics of the cultural – artistic phenomenon in Dolj County involves the identification of the forms of cultural manifestations carried out in the last five years in this area, the presentation of the main events of this kind from the county, with reference to the existing human resources necessary for such manifestations. The main purpose of this research is to do a “radiography” of the cultural phenomenon in Dolj County, in order to discover future trends that can lead to the development of the current, but also to propose some directions to diversify the existing supply based on which the number and diversity of tourists can multiply. The analyzed period is that of the last six years (2014-2019). It will be noted that the current cultural product is made up of various elements, with different forms (touchable or untouchable), services and infrastructure in a process of continuous development, which can outline together a future local brand (specific to human settlements), area or even county. The cultural – artistic manifestations generate cultural industry and default tourism. The cultural tourism is an unique and diverse economic phenomenon, which comprises a number of complex investments designed to attract, receive and satisfy the needs of consumers.
Most scientific works define “method” as a “path towards” reaching the goals envisaged by teaching activities, for a more efficient educational process. The work focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of using the method “Gallery Tour”, a method included in the category of “collaboration-based learning techniques”, and the method “I know/I want to know/I have learned”, a method falling under “techniques for developing critical thinking” in teaching the informative content “Biopedoclimatic areas” included in the syllabus for the 9th grade, in the learning unit “Life and Soils on Earth”. Collaboration-based learning techniques determine competition-based learning experiences. The mechanical reproduction of information is avoided, but there is the disadvantage that some students may have a passive attitude and an unequal participation in solving work tasks. Such methods prevent monotony and boredom. Techniques for developing critical thinking imply understanding the information and the reasoning. Students analyse ideas logically, argue, ask, accept or reject information. They observe, judge, state judgments of value. Such techniques stimulate the students’ curiosity.
Within both methods, knowledge is acquired through personal effort, passed through their own experience, through the filter of their thinking. They understand and reproduce them according to their age specificities. “The Gallery Tour” and “I know/I want to know/I have learned that” stimulate the students’ curiosity and interest for finding out new information, as efficient, active learning methods.