This study aims to evaluate the perception of the population regarding the potential danger generated by earthquakes in Craiova. Although it is located at a significant distance from the main seismic region of Romania (i.e. about 400 km from Vrancea), Craiova Municipality is still in an area with seismic risk according to the National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics (NIEP/INFP in Romanian). Regarding the seismic area in Romania, Craiova is classified at an 8 level on the MSK scale (according to Law no. 575/2001); moreover, the strong earthquakes produced in the last half-century had some notable effects on the territory of the municipality. In Craiova, the deficiencies concerning the anti-seismic education, the condition of the old constructions that are still used, the non-conforming structural changes brought to the buildings, etc. may increase the risk of an earthquake of medium and high magnitude. The present paper is based on the random sampling of 120 people from Craiova Municipality regarding their perception of earthquakes. It was found that half of them experienced at least one major earthquake (particularly that of 1977, which caused significant property damage and fatalities). The personal experience of such an earthquake or the participation in the simulative exercises of an earthquake in the city determines some of the respondents consider that they have learned how to behave during an earthquake. On the other hand, some of the respondents (especially the single or retired ones) expressed their lack of trust in the help they could receive during an earthquake.
The present paper aimed to render the correlation between the climatic conditions and forest vegetation within the Subcarpathian area, based on specific bioclimatic indices. In order to emphasize this correlation, there were analysed the spatial distribution and temporal variability of three indices – “De Martonne” aridity index (Ia), Ellenberg Quotient (EQ) and the forestry aridity index (FAI). The average monthly and annual temperature and precipitation data cover a period of 58 years (1961-2018). Based on the average values of the three indices it resulted that the central and eastern parts of the study area, with lower altitudes, is more suitable for the development of thermophilic species (oak, but also other deciduous species), while the western part, as well as at higher altitudes, beech (Fagus silvatica) and even coniferous species find proper conditions. The results indicate a good correlation among different bioclimatic indexes and between bioclimatic indexes and CLC 2018 classes of vegetation cover. In terms of temporal evolution, there Were not identified any statistically significant trends for the analyzed indices, mainly due to the fact that temperature increase in the area was also accompanied by the increase of the precipitation amount.
Urban settlements have always been attractive for the population throughout the history for a better living purposes, working opportunities or even good places for robbery during the wars or migrations. Depending on natural conditions, history or migratory events, cities around the world had known a spectacular evolution over the time, knowing different stages of organized or chaotic growth of their form. Regardless of the population increase registered in the past or the present demographic decline which affects most of the European states, the main cities continued to extend their area. This research presents, in a comparative study, the evolution of three European capitals (Bucharest, Paris and Madrid) in different moments of the history, starting with the 15th century. The study also includes an analysis of the demographic evolution. Using old cartographic resources, recent satellite images and open access databases, the authors analyse the evolution of the form and main directions of urban extension of the three European capitals in relation to the natural conditions and main roads. All data and cartographic resources had been processed and represented using open-source GIS software.