This paper analyses the pluviometric deficit regime during the cold semester, in the Oltenia Plain and the Southern Dobruja Plateau in the last half of the century (beginning with 1961), by treating comparatively this issue. The climatic evolutions in the last interval of time refer both to the tendency of sudden fall of atmospheric precipitations and to the tendency of air temperature increase in the last decades. The scanty precipitations registered for years on Earth extended surfaces led to phenomena of drought, which have been signalled also on the territory of our country, including in the two analysed regions. The significant differences we have found prove clearly the tendency of climate aridity in these regions situated in the two southern, south-western and namely south-eastern extremes of Romania.Read full article
Assessing flood magnitude and frequency. Case study: 2013 spring floods on the Jiu river, Filiași – Craiova sector (South-West Romania)
The main objective of the study is to use the statistical models to analyse the probability of flood and the joint of temporal variability of the flood peaks and their seasonality. The case study refers to the 2013 spring floods on the Jiu River, Filiași-Craiova sector. Thus, in order to obtain several features of the maximum discharge, the maximum values, the increasing and decreasing time also the frequency of occurrence, one of largest floods is analysed. The data used were recorded at 3 hydrometrical stations on the Jiu River for a common period of 10 years.
The hydrological analysis is based on two methods of the maximum flow values: Mann-Kendal test and Gumbel distribution. In the first part, we have identified if it’s a trend or not in the data series of the annual maximum discharge using Mann-Kendall trend test and the results were obvious, both statistically and graphically. The annual trend at two hydrometrical stations is of decrease (Test Z values: -1.58, Filiași hydrometrical station and -0.81, Răcari hydrometrical station), while at the hydrometrical station that closes the analysed sector is an increasing trend (Test Z value: 0.62, Podari hydrometrical station).
The Gumbel distribution is used to process the data from a long observation period of the maximum values. Applying this method to the flood data registered at the three hydrometric stations along the Jiu river are corresponding certain return periods (years) as follows: 1,140 cm/s registered at Filiași hydrometrical station has a 15 years return period; 1,447 cm/s reached at Răcari hydrometrical station has a 24 years return period; 1,309 cm/s recorded at Podari hydrometrical station has a 27 years return period. The above-mentioned values confirm the magnitude of the maximum flow at Răcari and Podari hydrometrical stations and anticipate the potential damage.
The flood frequency analysis using statistical models is important and also required in Romania given that the statistics of extreme events plays an important role in the engineering practice of water resources management.
Viewpoints on relief evolution and the hydrographical system of the southern Iezer Mountains between Valea Mare-Pravăț and Stoenești-Cetățeni
In the development of the hydrographical network from the south of the Iezer Mountains between Valea Mare-Pravăţ and Stoeneşti-Cetăţeni one can distinguish three periods: inferior-Miocene, in which there is visible a wide valley with psefit-peltic accumulations in the surrounding sea basin; medium Miocene – Pliocene with clearly-cut valleys in the mountains, with the presence of some debris from a field close by to the mountains, on which valley chutes have transversely extended; intermittent tectonic movements have been detected in this period, which have triggered both slight elevations and mild dips that have led during the Pliocene towards a sedimentary environment. In the Romanian upper-Pliocene in which the mountain elevations are finally settled down, there are breaks into the non-proclivity crests from the sub-Carpathians, which determine an asymmetrical proclivity-inclined couloir towards the mountain. New generations of torrential valleys come up, which are transversely oriented on the previous ones (springing from the mountainsRead full article
Objectivity, social challenges/research: their perspectives from human geography, law and the social sciences
Variation in practice procedures of professionals in different disciplines (e.g. social sciences and humanities) amazes those interested in objectivity. This is especially true concerning questions regarding human interest (conflict of interest, difference in the determination of interest, among other variants of interest) concerning the public realm and policy making/implementation. This has always been a matter of vigorous debate in the social sciences and other disciplines. Rather than engage in broad examination of their forms, we focus on clarifying the way various interests are perceived and treated with reference to objectivity in social science research and public policy. The objective of this paper is to assess the extent to which pluralism theory contributes towards understanding of differences between practices of social sciences and law. The specific objectives are: to explain the rather diametric opposition in the way social researchers are expected to exhibit objectivity in their approach to public policy/welfare and the way lawyers persist in applying bias towards persuading Judges to either acquit their clients or apply leniency to give their clients lighter sentences than could have been the case, should the full weight of possible penalty/punishment were to be applied. To provide reference material for stimulating multi-/cross-disciplinary discourse on the issues in the nexus of the title, we draw from multi-/interdisciplinary literature review to clarify the concept of objectivity from human geography, human society and the sovereign from political sciences and philosophies of Thomas Hobbes. The methods of aetiology and desk research were employed for implementing this study. The important empirical value of the study includes the analysis of the sub-field where social statistics (data) has been gathered against the backdrop of the perception of both the nature as well as the “how” the data is gathered to representing “facts”. Finally, we summarise the major ideas of the discourse, recommend future directions in exploring studies of this nature.Read full article
The main goal of the work is to analyze the dynamics of migration in the Resita city and its area of influence. The need for this study is relevant in the context of the current development of the case study area, marked by economic changes that have brought about effects in the demographic, social and cultural fields as well. The case study selected is a geographic area with a relatively large spatial extension, where the historical and political factors visibly marked socio-cultural aspects of human habitation. Resita’s industrial past left marks on the current economic landscape because of the fact that, although the industrial nature has remained dominant, nevertheless, influenced by economic reorganization, it has required an apparent downsizing, from the point of view of both production and workforce. The economic and social evolution of the Resita city influences also the rural space located in its area of influence. This situation was reflected in a decline of the migration of workforce drawn by Resita from the surrounding area.Read full article
The purpose of the present study is to correlate the ethnical structure of the population with toponyms designating human settlements. For that purpose, we have analysed the ethnical distribution of the population declaring its ethnical appurtenance at the national census in 2011, we have identified the names of human settlements that hint at ethnical groups’ presence and then correlated the names of those settlements with their national demographic structure.
From the point of view of the connection between the present percent of ethnical groups at the level of communes and the territorial distribution of oiconyms having ethnical connotation, we have identified a high correlation in the case of Romanians, only in part for Hungarians and no connection at all regarding Greeks, Polish, Macedonian, Jew or Turkish people; this result could only be related to a high mobility of the population, other that the majority one, added to substantial changes in the national structure of the population in the course of time.
The study aims to analyze two essential geodemographic structures for the cultural profile of the South-West Development Region: the ethnic and confessional structure of the population in its five counties: Dolj, Mehedinţi, Gorj, Vâlcea and Olt, based on the changes registered by the census of October, 2011. Registering a pronounced demographical decline, with a population in continuous regression in the post-communist period (-0.16% as compared to the total population in 1992), the region still remains a compact and unitary block of Orthodox Romanians.Read full article
In economic geography, the attractiveness of a country lies in its ability, at a given time, to attract various economic activities and production factors (business, labor, entrepreneurs, capital, etc.). It is in this context that industries are a factor of attraction of the town of Yaoundé since Cameroon attained independence in January 1960 with its territorial consequences. Since the beginning of the 2000s marked by a rebound in economic growth in Cameroon, the implantation of industries in this space increased contributing to an increase in the commuter relationships between Yaoundé and its hinterlands on account of the jobs created. This results in the reduction in the spatial, economic, territorial and administrative limits of Yaoundé whose influence now extends to near and distant peripheries. This study analyzes the role of industries as attractive factors of Yaoundé and resulting territorial dynamics at the local and regional level. Literature review, simple observation, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire were used as tools for collecting data in this study.Read full article
The present study aims at analysing the level of exposure to non-ionizing radiation for the population of the cities. This type of EM (electromagnetic radiation) is generated mainly by GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) technology of wireless communication based on the electromagnetic emitters (GSM antennas) needed for covering wider territorial areas. They produce constant pulsed microwave radiation even when nobody is using the phone, affecting the people inside and outside public and residential buildings. The study is based on the statistical evaluation and research of relevant scientific contributions, both stressing upon UN and European Parliament Regulations. There are considered the average threshold values for non-thermal biological effects in order to establish the potential risk for harmful exposure inside cities. Finally, there are considered some prevention and minimization procedures for residential exposure as long as non-thermal effects are not considered in any official standard and guideline.