Category: 2011

Analysis of 24-Hour Maximum Precipitation in North-Eastern Bulgaria through Relative Percentage Criterion


Abstract: The paper presents the results of investigation of the 24-hour maximum precipitation in the region of North-Eastern Bulgaria by applying the relative criterion of Fukui. According to this criterion, 24-hour precipitation equal to or exceeding 10% of the yearly rainfall amount is “extraordinarily heavy rainfall” and this rainfall has significant effects on river flow, soil, natural and agriculture vegetation. The criterion was applied to 24 stations from the National meteorological network during the period 1992-2008. The territorial and  temporal distribution of 24-hour maximum precipitation and their impact on the natural complex and the society are analyzed.

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Geographical Parallels to the Reaches of the Rivers the Danube and the Douro (Rivers of Destiny by Destiny of Rivers)


Abstract: The Danube and the Douro rivers are geographic objects of international importance as a result of their direct influence on the territories surrounding them. The present article attempts to make a geographic parallel on the importance of both rivers in their respective geographic locations – Southwest Europe and Southeast Europe. It explores the influence of Douro River on Northern Portugal and the Atlantic, as well as the history of the Eastern-European people who resided alongside the Danube River. Moreover, it also examines the future of the lands they occupy.

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Major Basins within the Danube Hydro-Geographical Region within Bulgaria


Abstract: The present paper discusses the division of some sub-basins in the Danube River Basin Directorate. It proposes the division of the main river basin the Ogosta and the rivers
west of the Ogosta and the unification of the catchment of the Erma and the Nishava River in a major river basin. This suggestion is based on the similarity of natural features, hydrographic and hydrological parameters and typification of water bodies according to UE Water Framework Directive. The result will be a better water management in these river basins.

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Cryogenic Processes


Abstract: Cryogenic processes are quite numerous, but among them the most significant, from the viewpoint of influence on human activities, we mention frost swelling, thermokarst
processes, thermal abrasion, thermal erosion, cryogenic cracking, and solifluction. Frost heaving represents a danger for motor roads, railroads and airfields, communication and transmission lines, bridges, and other structures. Thermokarst endangers the safety, stability, and normal operation of structures. Thermoabrasion affects industrial and civil site development, water transport, pipeline transport, mineral resource industry, hydropower engineering, and agriculture. Frost cracking constitutes a certain danger for the following engineering structures: motor roads (roadways may go over the discontinuity); residential and industrial buildings (breakage of continuous footings, cracks in the walls); airfields (damage to airfield pavements); pipelines (deformations and even breaks of underground steel pipelines); underground communication cables. The influences of fast and slow solifluction are the most urgent for the following kinds of human activity: mineral resource industry; transport (motor, rail, pipeline); and industrial and civil engineering. Thus, the present paper aims at rendering the global dimension of these processes stressing their consequences worldwide.

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Geomorphology And Morphogenesis of the Beli Lom River Valley


Abstract: The present paper renders the results of a geomorphology research performed in North-Eastern Bulgaria. It focusses on the geomorphology and the main stages of evolution of the Beli Lom River. On the base of field research, geology and geophysics research, detailed analysis of the specialized literature, it is concluded that the formation of this impressing relict erosion relief can be explained only with the factor-geology time. It formed long before the limits of the Quaternary. The aim of the present paper is to draw scientists’ attention on the issues regarding the Pleistocene – Holocene paleoclimatic conditions and relief in North – East Bulgaria and South – East Romania so to clarify its evolution.

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Spatial Distribution of Pastoral Activities in Romania Based on Anthroponimy


Abstract: Shepherding is an ancient activity, with a great economic importance. The importance of this activity in the area inhabited by the Romanians, both in the past and nowadays, is highlighted by the large number of terms that have created anthroponomy. The spatial extension of these names goes far beyond the current Romanian living space, both south and north of the Danube. The most frequent names derived from baci, cioban and mocan.

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Geodemographic Characteristics Regarding the Population from the Southern Oltenia


Abstract: The analysed geographic region knew an uninterrupted autochthon dwelling, starting with the Neolithic era and until nowadays. The numeric evolution of the rural population from this region, beginning with the 19th century, was similar to that from the national level. After a continuous ascendant evolution until 1956, when it was reached the maximum value (155,992 dwellers), the numeric dynamic of the population followed a descendant curve. The analysis of the demographic indicators (1977-2006) evidences the next situation: decreasing birth rate, increasing mortality rate and migration, the installation of a slow but continuous process of demographic aging, higher share of the feminine gender population, the growing demographic and economic dependence ratio, the lowering of the population’s activity rate.

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Importance of Body Language in Effective Multicultural Communication


Abstract: Communication is the transfer of information and ideas during the interaction between people. It is of two types: verbal and non- verbal, body or gestural. Gestural, body or non-verbal communication is as rich and complex as any language and organizes elementary and meaningless units into meaningful units. The gesture theory states that vocal human language developed from a gestural language. On the other hand, it is visual and exploits the unique features of the visual and performing media. This is considered as universal language. Cultural assimilation leads to multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is the appreciation, accepting, promotion of multiple ethics applied at the organization level in multicultural society. The need for effective multicultural communication is more prevalent in today’s world as countries do more business globally and borders are disappearing. Here gestural language plays a vital role in establishing relationship where people have no language in common. As this language is universally accepted and understood, serves as the main channel of communication in multicultural society. Body language is broad term for gestural language, which includes gestures, facial expression, eye movements, posture, body movements and the use of time and space. This Para language including body or gestural language serves as main factors in multicultural communication. Recognizing the importance of body or gestural language in communication, our ancient preceptors evolved, codified and propagated each body movements for effective communication. Natyashasthra2, which is the earliest text in this direction authored by Sage Bharathamuni, discusses the gestural language in detail. Analyzing the importance of traditional gestural language, Identifying its relevance in changing human values and creating modified version of the same for adopting in multicultural communication – are the main aims of this paper.

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Implication of the Credit Crash for Urban Regeneration in Riga


Abstract: The aim of this research is to evaluate the implication of the credit crash for urban regeneration in Riga. Examples of project development in urban brownfields and the implication of the economic downturn on them are analyzed in this study. GDP increment rate of Latvia was the highest among the European Union member states during the rapid growth of economy. It was mostly determined by rapid development of the construction and real estate sectors. High demand for dwellings caused one of the highest rates of price rise for real estate properties in the world. As a reaction to rapid increase in demand, development of real estate projects increased as well. Significant number of them was developed in Riga – the most important economic centre in Latvia and the biggest city in the Baltic states. Riga as a post-industrial city has significant proportion of brownfields, which are used ineffectively. The structures of these former industrial territories were formed mostly at the end of the 19th century and during the Soviet occupation period. Nowadays they are undergoing regeneration in order to construct new dwellings and commercial premises, because an advantage of these territories is their location close to the city centre. Latvia has experienced a rapid economic downturn, which has affected all economic sectors in Latvia negatively. Banking sector has faced problems as well, resulting in unavailability of the credits. Overproduction of dwellings and decreasing purchasing ability has caused the highest rate of price decrease in the world. It has resulted in rapid decline in construction sector, and the regeneration of brownfields in Riga is affected negatively, too. Several regeneration projects are suspended, but some have not been started. Many companies have faced bankruptcy, but, despite unfavorable economic conditions, some urban regeneration projects are in progress because of the decreasing implementation costs.

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Romanian Tourists on Bulgaria’s Black Sea Coast – A Territorial Analysis


Abstract: In this material, it is made a territorial analysis of the Romanian tourists visiting the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, but the trends and preferences of the Romanian tourists, too. We have also ranged municipalities according to the number of visits by foreign tourists and gave specific conclusions and recommendations. In order to accomplish the objectives of the paper, we have read the latest trends regarding the presence of Romanian tourists on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and used the currently available statistics from the National Statistics Institute. There have been outlined distinct territorial imbalances in the preferences of the Romanian tourists, but still, it is obvious that they found their place among all nationalities of the tourists visiting the coast.

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Possibilities for the Development of Wine Tourism in Shumen Region


Abstract: Shumen county is a traditional region for wine industry in Bulgaria. The most popular wineries are situated in the villages of Osmar and Khan Krum. The purpose of the report is to show the possibilities of developing this kind of tourism together with the wine industry. The author also suggests an itinerary for wine tourism that could affect the development of this segment.

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Capitalization of Tourism Resources in Oltenia (Romania)

Alina VLĂDUŢ, Sorin AVRAM, Liliana POPESCU

Abstract: Oltenia Region has a varied natural landscape displaying all major landforms. The classical tourist offer can be thus completed by introducing the spatial evolution of the territory, by describing the mechanisms of the processes that influenced the placement and further development of different settlements or sites. In this way, tourism acquires, besides a temporal dimension, which used to be prevailing, a spatial dimension, as well, that represents the present tendency in evaluating all the activities by means of eco-compatibility. By integrating these two dimensions in the offer, there can be better evaluated the carrying capacity of the region, the tourist offer leading to the maximization of the tourist activity without surpassing the sustainability limit.

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