Climate change and the impacts of anthropogenic activity on climate in Europe is documented in many scientific publications but the investigations about climate impact and particularly urban climate are relatively few for Bulgaria. The present paper investigates the variability of seasonal and annual air temperature in Sofia city and surrounding areas (towns Bankya and Bozhurishte) for the period 1961-2015 based on the linear regression method. In order to investigate the urban heat island (UHI) intensity, the air temperature difference between the city and its surroundings is calculated. The study shows increase of air temperature difference between the city and suburban territories during the recent years. The linkages between the observed variability of air temperature difference and atmospheric circulation and urbanization are investigated.
Dealing with a slowdown in economic growth is something that no country wants to be concerned with. Neither do countries want to face the reality of widening gaps in income or the realities that attend changes in the climate that we are experiencing in the world today. This study focuses on these issues and makes an attempt to find solutions to them. First there are discussed the negative impacts that climate change has on economic growth and income inequality. It is the author’s contention that if a solution can be found to the various problems connected to climate change, solutions to these other problems will be found. The paper ends with a discussion of the role that business can play in finding solutions to the problems regarding climate change.
GIS (Geographic information System) techniques, characterized by high accuracy of mapping and measurement, prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis. The main goal of the study is to analyze the hydrographic network in linear form (vector) by overlaying databases from different periods (vector layer made in 2003 and layer made in 2017) for a regional case study within Southwestern Romania. The database organized in layers aims to reproduce characteristics of the drainage network: the cartographic maps scale 1: 100.000, Geo-referenced in ArcGIS 10.4); the first version of the hydrographic network used in the first River Basin. The results of this analysis will be concentrated on the length of the river network correlated with the two layers and also on the relief based on a DTM (cell size 5×5 m) within the study area. The relevance of the discussions lies in highlighting the differences appeared over time regarding the hydrographic network spatially using GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis.
This study aims to evaluate the perception of the population regarding the potential danger generated by earthquakes in Craiova. Although it is located at a significant distance from the main seismic region of Romania (i.e. about 400 km from Vrancea), Craiova Municipality is still in an area with seismic risk according to the National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics (NIEP/INFP in Romanian). Regarding the seismic area in Romania, Craiova is classified at an 8 level on the MSK scale (according to Law no. 575/2001); moreover, the strong earthquakes produced in the last half-century had some notable effects on the territory of the municipality. In Craiova, the deficiencies concerning the anti-seismic education, the condition of the old constructions that are still used, the non-conforming structural changes brought to the buildings, etc. may increase the risk of an earthquake of medium and high magnitude. The present paper is based on the random sampling of 120 people from Craiova Municipality regarding their perception of earthquakes. It was found that half of them experienced at least one major earthquake (particularly that of 1977, which caused significant property damage and fatalities). The personal experience of such an earthquake or the participation in the simulative exercises of an earthquake in the city determines some of the respondents consider that they have learned how to behave during an earthquake. On the other hand, some of the respondents (especially the single or retired ones) expressed their lack of trust in the help they could receive during an earthquake.
Large and powerful animals represent a source of fear and fascination for humans and influence the evolution of culture, civilization and science. Although the maximum size reached by such beasts has been the subject of intense controversy, little scientific interest has been given to distinguish reality from fiction. Therefore, the goal of our study was to identify the largest specimens of the contemporary mega fauna. In order to do so, we have a) selected the most representative species and identified the largest specimens through a scientific literature synthesis, b) reconstructed their distinctive physical features through detailed handmade drawings, and c) analyzed their location in relation to the distribution of reserves and intact ecosystems. Our results indicate that the maximum size reached by large water predators, such as sharks and crocodiles, has been much more documented compared to large land carnivores and herbivores. Almost all of the exceptionally large specimens identified were located in protected areas. In several cases, such as the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), the largest individuals have been identified in the last couple of decades. The results represent a true statement concerning the importance of preserving mega fauna species, and reveal that, despite increasing human population and pressure over the natural environment, the beast of the animal world can still survive in modern times, due to the conservation of large wild habitats through networks of protected areas.
The planning and management of the Bucegi Mountains require tools which allow a broad and essential view in order to identify the tendencies and promotion of some balanced projects of development. Based on the connection between the development of tourism, specific activities and touristic destination, the Bucegi Mountains capitalize the presence of some touristic facilities and technical-utility features which may ease the capitalisation, mainly, of the natural potential – support for the practice of various forms of tourism: mountainous tourism, recreation tourism, adventure tourism, cave diving, etc. The most important principles of sustainable tourism can be applied to all forms of tourism, including the niche tourism. Consequently, the way some forms of tourism are practised in natural reserve areas must maintain the essential ecological process, so as the aesthetical values or the cultural authenticity of the host communities to promote the traditional values or the cultural-historical patrimony. Thus, sustainable tourism must contribute to the reduction of the risk of poverty in the local communities.
Population ageing is occurring on more extensive areas worldwide, is affecting rural areas with greater intensity and at a faster pace than ever. This study aims to evaluate the main demographic changes and their social consequences in post-communist Romania, highlighting the particularities of rural decline phenomenon and taking into account regional and gender-related patterns and causalities. Unfavourable demographic trends recorded in rural Romania emphasize the urgent necessity to address the complex processes associated with rural depopulation through national, regional or even local solutions and approaches.