Abstract: After the earthquake in the region of Marmara, already existing housing shortage rapidly increased. Permanent residential projects were formed to meet the housing needs; priority was given to those who lost their homes during the earthquake. In addition to permanent residential projects, communal residential projects drew attention as well. As a result of the mentioned housing shortage, various unions and institutions undertook the project of establishing numerous new residential areas. In this study we aimed to observe and to work on classification criteria concerning new residential areas, hence we tried to classify these new establishments according to the criteria we have made. In cities such as Kocaeli, Yalova and Sakarya, which were directly struck by the earthquake, similarities as well as differences were observed and they determined the selection on new residential areas. It is to be noticed that the changes, especially in Istanbul and in other cities in eastern Marmara, were not realised as a consequence of the earthquake, but in expectation of a major one and coincided with the tertiary era cities. Accordingly, new residential areas that were established after the earthquake were closely examined and after the processes concerning the settlements, they were put forward. The new formations were compared with the tertiary era cities. The differences and the similarities were studied.
Abstract. Transhumance is a traditional economic activity based on stock breeding that has been carried out for many years in Turkey. Turkey naturally has an uneven topography and has many plateaus due to its hilly areas. Even though there may be differences in the regional scale, tourism activities increased in the areas where cattle breeding was done until 1980. Plateau tourism can be considered as an important part of nature tourism. Damaging the nature in these areas will risk the growing tourism potential as well as the breeding areas of the animals that are raised as a traditional economic activity. Transhumance activities in the Keremali Mountain located on the western part of North Anatolian mountains will be studied due to its closeness and easy access to the North Western part, which is a highly populated area in Turkey. After the tourism potential of the plateaus in the area will be evaluated, the most important plateau in the region: Çiğdem Plateau will be studied as an example.The people who come from Sakarya, İzmit, İstanbul, Düzce settlements take (regreatif) short term advantage of the Keremali Plateau. However, in order to keep nature tourism going, accommodation possibilities in the area should be increased without harming the nature and short term tourism should be converted to long term tourism.