This paper presents the general organization of a Dugesiidae population from Dăbuleni locality (SW Romania) with emphasis on the anatomy of the copulatory apparatus. The copulatory apparatus is characterized by intermingled bursal canal musculature and two distinct penis bulbs with two large seminal vesicles. The copulatory apparatus is also characterised by the presence of an atrial fold, feature typical of Schmidtea mediterranea (Benazzi, Baguñà, Ballester, Puccinelli, Del Papa 1975). The characteristics of the copulatory apparatus of the investigated population are comparatively discussed with all the other Schmidtea species. Data on the reproductive biology are also given. The presence of Schmidtea mediterranea in SW Romania is discussed in relation with the paleogeographic evolution of land and aquatic basins of Europe. The possibility that the Schmidtea population from Dăbuleni (SW Romania) be a candidate for a new species is also considered.