Abstract: The present paper deals with the comparative analysis of the management types of two nature reserves: Les Hauts de Chartreuse (The French Alps) and Lăpuşna Resonance Spruce Fir (The Carpathian Mountains – the central group of the Eastern Carpathians). In these two nature reserves, the forest ecosystem plays an extremely important role: in the French reserve, 45 percent of its total surface is covered by trees of European interest, while the Romanian reserve is a natural forest reserve. The management of these forest ecosystems has to preserve the natural ecological balance and, in both cases, wood exploitation is a priority at a local level, which means specific problems. The management of Les Hauts de Chartreuse nature reserve is marked by the opposition between the persons that own land within the reserve and its custodian’s will, which makes the application of the management plans difficult. The management of Lăpuşna nature reserve is under two threats – wood illegal exploitation and the local plan for tourist development. There is the following question that stands at the core of the present paper: What type of management has to be applied in the case of mountainous nature reserves in order to sustain the efforts of conservation and capitalization of forest ecosystems?