Elisabeta CIOCAN Oana IONUŞ
Extracurricular didactic-geographic activities contribute to the enhancing and the evaluation of the knowledge assimilated by the students during class hours. During these activities, the students can directly observe the phenomena and processes in nature, not being forced to use substitutes of reality as learning tools. Through the practical exercises performed, teamwork, the student-student, teacher-student relationship are improved. Students rediscover the motivation to learn, get involved in decision-making, approach innovatively: learning, transferring theoretical knowledge in practical activities.
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Oana IONUŞ Mihaela DOBRE Elisabeta CIOCAN
The main objective of the study is to use the statistical models to analyse the probability of flood and the joint of temporal variability of the flood peaks and their seasonality. The case study refers to the 2013 spring floods on the Jiu River, Filiași-Craiova sector. Thus, in order to obtain several features of the maximum discharge, the maximum values, the increasing and decreasing time also the frequency of occurrence, one of largest floods is analysed. The data used were recorded at 3 hydrometrical stations on the Jiu River for a common period of 10 years.
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The hydrological analysis is based on two methods of the maximum flow values: Mann-Kendal test and Gumbel distribution. In the first part, we have identified if it’s a trend or not in the data series of the annual maximum discharge using Mann-Kendall trend test and the results were obvious, both statistically and graphically. The annual trend at two hydrometrical stations is of decrease (Test Z values: -1.58, Filiași hydrometrical station and -0.81, Răcari hydrometrical station), while at the hydrometrical station that closes the analysed sector is an increasing trend (Test Z value: 0.62, Podari hydrometrical station).
The Gumbel distribution is used to process the data from a long observation period of the maximum values. Applying this method to the flood data registered at the three hydrometric stations along the Jiu river are corresponding certain return periods (years) as follows: 1,140 cm/s registered at Filiași hydrometrical station has a 15 years return period; 1,447 cm/s reached at Răcari hydrometrical station has a 24 years return period; 1,309 cm/s recorded at Podari hydrometrical station has a 27 years return period. The above-mentioned values confirm the magnitude of the maximum flow at Răcari and Podari hydrometrical stations and anticipate the potential damage.
The flood frequency analysis using statistical models is important and also required in Romania given that the statistics of extreme events plays an important role in the engineering practice of water resources management.
The changes made in the structure of the agricultural land use within the Desnăţui Plain are caused, on one hand by the population growth (which determined an increased request for agricultural products for own consume, for various taxes paid to the land owners or for trade), and on the other hand, by the official agricultural policies (the reforms issued in 1864, 1921, 1945), which influenced the type of property and exploitation of the agricultural lands. In order to put am emphasis on the changes occurred in the structure of the farming land use in the Desnăţui Plain, both before and after the communism fall, there were taken as reference years: the year 1970, when the political system was thriving, the year 1989, which led to the end of the communist regime in Romania and the beginning of a new stage in the Romanian agriculture (privatization) and 2009, the year for which the most recent data have been gathered.
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Abstract: The contents of the present research comprises the case studies of two areas, which are referential for the exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Amaradia Hills, with major impact on the environment: Brădeşti area, in the south-west of the region and Vârteju area, situated norther, on the Plosca brook valley, a tributary of the Amaradia river.
The paper aims at evaluating the pollution degree which affects the components of the environment, within the extraction areas of hydrocarbons, in order to point out the necessity of the precautionary measures to reduce the negative impact on the environment, all this with a view to applying the principles of sustainable development of the region.
Abstract: The architecture of Sighişoara is represented by a mixture of styles in which Gothic, Renaissance and baroque elements are found. The urbanistic structure has been preserved through all the defining elements of the Medieval period. The great density of architectural monuments: public buildings, the dwellings that make up the assembly, but also the defence works that have been preserved up to 90%, make the area unique by its historical value. In the town, there is a great difference between the architecture of the Citadel and that of the Downward Town, the latter having been much more affected by the transformations which came along with the passing of years.
After 1950, new utilities have been introduced and they generated changes in the arrangement of interiors and annexes, according to the newest functional requirements. But, these changes are reversible. The transformations, imposed to the houses because of permanent inhabitance, have been realised from the same materials, using the same techniques, the plastered gravels, the brick walls and the roofs with high tiles. The walls with ornaments of many houses represent a characteristic of Sighişoara city and it reflects authenticity to the architectonic outlook.