Abstract: The capacity, safety and speed are attributes which give importance to the transports and railway communication lines in the national transport. The railways of our country have appeared in the mid nineteenth century and have developed very fast. The evolution of rail transport followed the stages of economic and social development of the country. The purpose of this article is to present the main stages of the railway network development, its structure and the dynamic of the railways types. Also, there are analyzed the railway density, the dynamics of goods and passenger transport, the goods transport structure and the dynamics of the rail transport. The reporting is made at the features years of the period 1938-2006 at the development regions and districts level.