Costela IORDACHE Claudia FLORESCU
The purpose of the present study is to present the demographic characteristics of the urban settlements situated in the mountainous disadvantaged area of the South-West Development Region, Oltenia. Following our analysis, several aspects have been asserted: the numerical evolution of the population and identifying categories of urban settlements as resulting from the demographic dynamics, the natural and territorial movement of the population, the demographic behaviour expressed by demographic potential and marriage stability, the indicators pointing out gender, age, ethnical and confessional structure of the population.
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Costela IORDACHE Claudia FLORESCU
The purpose of the present study is to correlate the ethnical structure of the population with toponyms designating human settlements. For that purpose, we have analysed the ethnical distribution of the population declaring its ethnical appurtenance at the national census in 2011, we have identified the names of human settlements that hint at ethnical groups’ presence and then correlated the names of those settlements with their national demographic structure.
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From the point of view of the connection between the present percent of ethnical groups at the level of communes and the territorial distribution of oiconyms having ethnical connotation, we have identified a high correlation in the case of Romanians, only in part for Hungarians and no connection at all regarding Greeks, Polish, Macedonian, Jew or Turkish people; this result could only be related to a high mobility of the population, other that the majority one, added to substantial changes in the national structure of the population in the course of time.
Romania’s ethnical entirety is made up of several ethnical minorities, 20 of them being represented in the national parliament. This study aims to present the main demographic aspects which characterize the Bulgarian minority in Romania. We focused on the following elements: territorial distribution of the Bulgarians, numerical evolution during the 1930-2011 period, outlining the number of inhabitants for the future 10 and 25 years, the structure by urban-rural environment, age, gender, the marital status, socio-economic structure, level of education, religion and native language.
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Abstract: Situated in the South-West of Romania, Oltenia represents an important region, both from a historical and a geographical point of view, having a continuous population from ancient times. This statement is sustained by the variety of oiconyms, but also by the linguistic origin of most of the terms. Depending both on social-political circumstances, but also on physical-geographical determinations, oiconyms emphasize the features of the natural background and the peculiarities of the economic development. Among the categories of oiconyms found in Oltenia, we have chosen to analyse those ones that originate in the forest domain. The elements of spontaneous and cultivated forest vegetation have an important place in the oyconimy of Oltenia. The geoecological conditions both determinated the dimension and the structure of the forest cover, but also the tree cover. At present, the actual spread of the forest is connected with the ancient humanization of the Dacic population and its continuity. In the course of time, the population exerted a continuous pressure on the forest by grazing, which is a traditional occupation, even if, as compared to other regions, the forest cover had a lower percentage in the overall surface of Oltenia. The need to extend the cultivated areas, also expressed by the repeated deforestation, especially within plain areas is pointed out by the frequency of oiconyms that assign deforestation. The presence of the forest, its spatial dimension and the composition of the forest and tree areas regarding the component species, but also the geographical repartition of the corresponding oiconyms represent the basic coordinates of the present study. The specialized analysis of oiconyms in specific phytotoponyms emphasizes the fact that assigning names for localities has been made according to the surrounding reality. Also, the form of presentation for oiconyms in their dynamics, starting with the first documentary mention, both reveal the Romanian models of their formation and the historicaldemographical conditions in which the settlement network has evolved.
Abstract: Starting from the definition of demographic risk as a dangerous social phenomenon for a people and for society as a whole, this article aims to present the most significant and quantified risks for female population: the ageing, the reduction of the generation of fertile age, the unemployment. The study emphasizes some very sensitive indicators in the assessment of the risks such as: the index of feminization specific for the age groups of 15-59 years and over 60 years, and also the maternal death. If in the case of natural risks, the forecasts have a very relative character, the demographics risks can be avoided, can be kept under control, their prevention being possible.
Abstract: The capacity, safety and speed are attributes which give importance to the transports and railway communication lines in the national transport. The railways of our country have appeared in the mid nineteenth century and have developed very fast. The evolution of rail transport followed the stages of economic and social development of the country. The purpose of this article is to present the main stages of the railway network development, its structure and the dynamic of the railways types. Also, there are analyzed the railway density, the dynamics of goods and passenger transport, the goods transport structure and the dynamics of the rail transport. The reporting is made at the features years of the period 1938-2006 at the development regions and districts level.
Abstract. The young population is a demographic component with multiple qualitative and quantitative valences. In 2006, the young population counted 5031.3 thousand people, representing 23.3 percent of the total Romanian population, with nearly 200 thousand less than in 1990. The decreasing trend of the cohort of young people is according to the downward trend of the total population of the country. Also, the statistics reveal the reduction of the fertility from 56.2 ‰ in 1990 to 39.5 ‰ in 2006. Between the analyzed limit, the number of the new born children was with 30 percent lower. The nuptial rates by age group and by sex registered the highest values in 20-24 year age group at the female population along the analyzed interval; at men, the same age group had a maximum value in the ninth decade of the last century. The economic difficulties have a negative impact on certain demographic phenomena.
Abstract. The paper aims at rendering the physical-geographical and social-economic features of a Czech settlement from our country. Gârnic village is located in the South-West of Romania, in the South of Banat, within the area of the Locva Mountains. It is one of the seventh communities with compact Czech population that still preserves the ethno-cultural and linguistic peculiarities very well. There are analysed the natural landscape that favoured inhabitance, the population’s history, the demographic and economic potential, as well as certain ethnographical features (traditional ways of using water, national costumes, specific customs and traditions).