Abstract: The Andean region of South-America has been the cradle of big cultures and empires, up to the Inka empire as the last and biggest one, a synthesis of all the previous states of the region for more thousand years. A comparative essay of the pre-Inka imperial centres like Wari, Tiahunaco and Chan Chan, furthermore, Inka urbanization as the legendary lost city of Machu Picchu and the capital Cusco, with the new cities of Spanish foundation like Lima or the same Cusco, transformed into a Spanish colonial centre, can give a chronological view about the development of the urbanization in this region. A chapter apart presents special urbanizations like mining towns and ports. The study intends to depict the structure, the districts, the architectural style and the technical innovations of all these cities as well as the actual situation and the problems Lima must solve, a city that grew into a metropolis of the 21st century. In the end, some short reflections to remember the rural zone’s story and actual difficulties in the Andean countries are given.