Edition: 2009

Reflections about some ideas from one of professor Victor Tufescu’s works

Mihai IELENICZ

Abstract: The paper presents some thoughts that came to our mind when reading the presentation of Professor Tufescu from 1942, which defined him not only as a geographer, but as an exquisite realistic analyst. His intervention stands out as a pragmatic synthesis of Romania’s social and economic situation, during the second world war. The Professor envisaged realistic directions for the evolution of the continent’s peoples and not only. We aim at presenting only some of these ideas, demonstrated for some economic functions, which proved to be quite accurate in the following years.

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Methods and techniques used for establishing the age and genesis of pelitic rocks. Applications in geography

Ştefan NEGREANU, Alina VLĂDUŢ, Sorin AVRAM

Abstract: In the sedimentary domain, clays represent about half of the detritic rocks in terms of frequency. Clasts with the diameters smaller than 2 or 4μm, according to the used scale, clays, also called pelitic rocks, have to contain as deposits more than 60% clay minerals of the entire petrographic assembly in order to be categorized as clay rocks. Sediments (the primary material) on the base of which they form after the occurrence of diagenetic processes (porosity reduction, cementation of clasts, dissolving of certain minerals and precipitation of others etc.) are known as muds. The type of clay minerals, their morphology, as well as the morphology of the deposits they belong to, the presence and proportion of different chemical elements characteristic to certain well-established depositing environments, gives us clues about the origin of the primary material and about the transformations, it underwent from the initial depositing stage to the moment the sample is taken.

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Tsunamis and their impact on human activities

Sergey GOVORUSHKO

Abstract: The regions where most of tsunamis originate are Japan, Peru, Chile, the New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The emergence of tsunamis may be caused by the following factors: 1) earthquakes; 2) volcanic eruptions; 3) rockfalls; 4) landslides; 5) submarine landslides; 6) submarine explosions; 7) meteorological reasons. Damage is caused by: 1) flood due to quick rise of the sea level; 2) dynamic load on constructions; 3) hits by floating wreckages; 4) soil wash-out at foundations by the fast water stream; 5) fluctuations of water level (leading first of all to the damage of vessels moored: 6) dynamic impact of the air wave in front of a tsunami. Tsunamis cause considerable mortality and influence a number of objects and types of human activity: 1) residential and industrial buildings; 2) water transport; 3) plant growing; 4) forestry, etc.

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Weather instability in Oltenia between May 25 and June 6, 2009

Ion MARINICĂ

Abstract: The present paper analyses the types of synoptic situations that generated obvious weather instability within Oltenia between May 25 and June 6. Weather instability is usually associated with pronounced coolings that brought to the occurring of monthly minimum values or event o absolute minimum values for May and June during the abovementioned interval. In certain years, in the same period, there occurred rain showers that generated great precipitation amounts and floods in certain parts of Oltenia, while other times, hail registered exceptional dimensions and, consequently, important material damages (June 2, 1995, Marinică, 1995, 2005). We consider this paper is extremely useful for the researchers involved in weather forecast and climatology.

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Forest ecosystems between conservation and capitalization, case studies: les hauts de chartreuse nature reserve (the French Alps mountains) and the nature reserve Lapusna resonance spruce fir (the Carpathian mountains, the central group of the Eastern Carpathians)

Olga BĂLTESCU

Abstract: The present paper deals with the comparative analysis of the management types of two nature reserves: Les Hauts de Chartreuse (The French Alps) and Lăpuşna Resonance Spruce Fir (The Carpathian Mountains – the central group of the Eastern Carpathians). In these two nature reserves, the forest ecosystem plays an extremely important role: in the French reserve, 45 percent of its total surface is covered by trees of European interest, while the Romanian reserve is a natural forest reserve. The management of these forest ecosystems has to preserve the natural ecological balance and, in both cases, wood exploitation is a priority at a local level, which means specific problems. The management of Les Hauts de Chartreuse nature reserve is marked by the opposition between the persons that own land within the reserve and its custodian’s will, which makes the application of the management plans difficult. The management of Lăpuşna nature reserve is under two threats – wood illegal exploitation and the local plan for tourist development. There is the following question that stands at the core of the present paper: What type of management has to be applied in the case of mountainous nature reserves in order to sustain the efforts of conservation and capitalization of forest ecosystems?

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Accessibility in the resonance pine of Lapusna and les hauts de chartreuse natural reserves – vector of their vulnerability to the touristic pressure

Olga BĂLTESCU

Abstract: The present paper starts from the following premises: the accessibility in the natural reserves can become a risk factor for the protected natural elements, if the access is not correlated with the interests of preservation. In this case the density and the quality of the transport network are the factors which increase the flow of visitors in a natural reserves. In order to prove this hypothesis we used two case studies: the Resonance pine of Lăpuşna and Les Hauts de Chartreuse natural reserves. So, for the two reserves it was analyzed the existing transport infrastructure, as well as its quality, which is translated in the time needed for driving until the entrance in the natural reserve.

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Oiconyms originating from the ligneous vegetation and deforestation within Oltenia

Costela IORDACHE

Abstract: Situated in the South-West of Romania, Oltenia represents an important region, both from a historical and a geographical point of view, having a continuous population from ancient times. This statement is sustained by the variety of oiconyms, but also by the linguistic origin of most of the terms. Depending both on social-political circumstances, but also on physical-geographical determinations, oiconyms emphasize the features of the natural background and the peculiarities of the economic development. Among the categories of oiconyms found in Oltenia, we have chosen to analyse those ones that originate in the forest domain. The elements of spontaneous and cultivated forest vegetation have an important place in the oyconimy of Oltenia. The geoecological conditions both determinated the dimension and the structure of the forest cover, but also the tree cover. At present, the actual spread of the forest is connected with the ancient humanization of the Dacic population and its continuity. In the course of time, the population exerted a continuous pressure on the forest by grazing, which is a traditional occupation, even if, as compared to other regions, the forest cover had a lower percentage in the overall surface of Oltenia. The need to extend the cultivated areas, also expressed by the repeated deforestation, especially within plain areas is pointed out by the frequency of oiconyms that assign deforestation. The presence of the forest, its spatial dimension and the composition of the forest and tree areas regarding the component species, but also the geographical repartition of the corresponding oiconyms represent the basic coordinates of the present study. The specialized analysis of oiconyms in specific phytotoponyms emphasizes the fact that assigning names for localities has been made according to the surrounding reality. Also, the form of presentation for oiconyms in their dynamics, starting with the first documentary mention, both reveal the Romanian models of their formation and the historicaldemographical conditions in which the settlement network has evolved.

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The Romanati county under the effect of the administrative-territorial changes during 1938-1940

Diana-Mihaela PĂUNOIU

Abstract: Romanati was one of the oldest Romanian counties. According to documents, it is dated, as county of Walachia, in the 15th century (1496). During the administrative reform in 1938, it was included, together with Dolj, Gorj, Olt, Mehedinti and Valcea Counties, in the Olt Countryside. In this paper, I have presented the main modifications introduced by The Administrative Law in 1938 and the instructions sent by the Ministry of the Internal Affairs to Royal Residents placed to rule the countries, concerning the allotment of territorial circumscriptions of communes, and the modifications happened between 1938-1940 regarding the situation of the townships and communes that composed the Romanati County.

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Workforce quantity and quality assessment for the Saratel drainage basin (Buzau Subcarpathians)

Valentina Ilinca STOICA, Adrina Iustina UNGURAŞ, Florentina Cristina IANCU (MERCIU)

Abstract: The biggest part of the Sărăţel drainage basin is located in the Buzău Subcarpathians (part of the Curvature Subcarpathians); the area encompasses 26 villages, with another few rural settlements located on the border with other river basins and only partly inside the area analyzed; these settlements were not considered because they are bound to other economic and social centers. This study assesses a set of synthetic indicators, which allow for a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the workforce, including population employment rate; the structure of the population in terms of the fields of trade they work in; economic dependence rate; workforce renewal rate; population structure in terms of training; tertiary sector employee structure in terms of fields of trade. Information on the workforce volume as well as its characteristic features is important because territorial development strategies are impossible to draw in the absence of information on the human resources available in a certain territory.

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Demographic risks among the female population in Romania

Costela IORDACHE, Cristiana VÂLCEA, Cristina MARA, Mihaela LICURICI

Abstract: Starting from the definition of demographic risk as a dangerous social phenomenon for a people and for society as a whole, this article aims to present the most significant and quantified risks for female population: the ageing, the reduction of the generation of fertile age, the unemployment. The study emphasizes some very sensitive indicators in the assessment of the risks such as: the index of feminization specific for the age groups of 15-59 years and over 60 years, and also the maternal death. If in the case of natural risks, the forecasts have a very relative character, the demographics risks can be avoided, can be kept under control, their prevention being possible.

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Urban dynamics within Oltenia south-western development region

Liliana POPESCU

Abstract: Following the industrialization, migration of the work force from rural to urban settlements, as well as the considerable natural increase, more towns have passed from one demographic category to another, a fact which influenced the ranking of every towns in the national and regional hierarchy. The analysis of the rank variation on long term indicates that there are four categories of towns: towns having a negative dynamics, oscillatory dynamics, positive or stable one.

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The establishment of residential areas following the 1999 earthquake in Turkey and the effects of the earthquake on those new establishments

Meryem HAYIR

Abstract: After the earthquake in the region of Marmara, already existing housing shortage rapidly increased. Permanent residential projects were formed to meet the housing needs; priority was given to those who lost their homes during the earthquake. In addition to permanent residential projects, communal residential projects drew attention as well. As a result of the mentioned housing shortage, various unions and institutions undertook the project of establishing numerous new residential areas. In this study we aimed to observe and to work on classification criteria concerning new residential areas, hence we tried to classify these new establishments according to the criteria we have made. In cities such as Kocaeli, Yalova and Sakarya, which were directly struck by the earthquake, similarities as well as differences were observed and they determined the selection on new residential areas. It is to be noticed that the changes, especially in Istanbul and in other cities in eastern Marmara, were not realised as a consequence of the earthquake, but in expectation of a major one and coincided with the tertiary era cities. Accordingly, new residential areas that were established after the earthquake were closely examined and after the processes concerning the settlements, they were put forward. The new formations were compared with the tertiary era cities. The differences and the similarities were studied.

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Land-use change in urban Bangalore using GIS and remote sensing

Priya NARAYANAN, Ashok HANJAGI

Abstract: Environmental changes, modifications in ecosystem structures and the loss of biodiversity affect the whole planet and have aroused worldwide public concern. Since the beginning of the 20th century, scientific and political debate on these issues, both nationally and internationally stated (Boletta et. Al. 2000) have pointed towards land-use change, which is one of the most important human and nature induced environmental changes. Generally, land-use change refers to the alteration in the physical land surface and biotic component on it. Monitoring land-use change has become an important theme of research. Land-use has enormous effects through fragmentation of natural habits (Tuner et.al., 2003; Verburg at. Al 1999; Vitousek, 1994). Bangalore is internationally recognized as a technological hub. Along the proud economical growth of this knowledge capital of India, there are noticeable blemishes in terms of its loss of ecology and threatened food security. Such changes can clearly be attributed to land-use change. When compared with its past status, the present land-use of the city clearly denotes the mounting pressure of some classes of land-use which are under stress. A balanced and sustainable growth is often only conceptual in terms of urban land-use. Using GIS and Remote Sensing, this case study for Bangalore clearly marks the awaiting problems that are caused by land-use changes. The resultant statistics also gives the scope for the future planning of land-use.

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Certain aspects regarding the genesis, evolution and urbanization premises of Chisinau municipality

Elena SOCHIRCĂ

Abstract: Concrete knowledge about the genesis of a settlement has a great theoretical and practical importance, especially in a systematic process of territorial towns and villages. To know the genesis of settlements does not mean a simple historical “dating” or schematic reconstitution of a landscape. Such an approach, the genetic one, primarily involves knowledge about the capital feature of a nation, and its ability to develop into a stage or another, conditions that generate a way of life or another. Genesis of a settlement requires a good selection of socio-economic and natural factors ensuring the viability of any settlements, whether rural or urban, older or newer. Progress and current situation of the municipality of Chisinau is the result of complex socio-economic and natural factors, whose role and weight was changed over time and space according to the historical-political conditions. The evolution of the territorial Chisinau city is the result of the development of the functional settlement, in time and space, the gradual emergence of functions and development of existing and interconditioning of these with the demographic factor.

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Rural morphological structures within the Bailesti plain

Anca CEAUŞESCU

Abstract: The rural settlements within the Băileşti Plain highlights in the geographical landscape by specific features which give its individuality. The characteristics of its natural background (the high rate of the smooth surfaces, low relief intensity, biologicalpedological-climatic conditions etc.), social-historical conditions and human-induced activities gave the villages certain morphological-structural features, which harmonize with the general features of rural settlements within plains. The morphological structure of the villages within the analyzed area is gathered, with households concentrated within the well outlined and clearly delimited boundaries of the heartlands from the economic territory (the estate). We can emphasize the following subtypes: agglomerated, concentrated or compact villages. From the poin of view of the physiognomy of the heartland, the villages possess a regular-polygonal form (44.6%), an irregular-polygonal one (41.4%) and an elongatedpolygonal form (14.2%). Concerning the disposing of the street network, the villages with regular, irregular and mixed texture are characteristic for plainlands.

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Use and state of lands in agriculture of russian far east

Aleksei A. STEPANKO

Abstract: The theoretical and applied aspects of the agricultural land use are considered, estimates of land resources used in the agriculture and their regional differentiation under different agro-geographical conditions on the territory of the Far East agricultural zone are performed. The proposed approach to investigating the agro-potential allows to analyze and image its arrangement, condition and types and efficiency of its use. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lands used in the agriculture of the Far-Eastern are presented. The structural changes, dynamics and intensity in the agro-potential use are shown. The agro-ecological characteristic of the agricultural areas most favorable for agriculture is given.

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Considerations upon the rail transports in Romania

Costela IORDACHE, Cristina ILIESCU

Abstract: The capacity, safety and speed are attributes which give importance to the transports and railway communication lines in the national transport. The railways of our country have appeared in the mid nineteenth century and have developed very fast. The evolution of rail transport followed the stages of economic and social development of the country. The purpose of this article is to present the main stages of the railway network development, its structure and the dynamic of the railways types. Also, there are analyzed the railway density, the dynamics of goods and passenger transport, the goods transport structure and the dynamics of the rail transport. The reporting is made at the features years of the period 1938-2006 at the development regions and districts level.

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Tourist destination competitiveness: between desirable and imperative

Mirela MAZILU, Felicia STĂNCIOIU

Abstract: The problem of competitiveness is a current one, which has to be approached not only at a microeconomic level, but also at a macroeconomic one, because, at the moment, unfortunately, the lack of competitiveness of the products/Romanian services is obvious on the internal market as well as on the external one and has consequences in the national economy. With the strong competition on the oversaturated tourist market by countless elements, which are considered far from the quality meaning, ensuring the competitiveness constitutes a primordial strategic objective, this being a fundamental notion in the strategy and the strategic analysis.

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Golf as a link between tourism and sports. Case study: the Ugolino Golf Club, Florence (Tuscany, Italy)

Florentina-Cristina IANCU (Merciu), Fausto SIDDU

Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to highlight the close ties between tourism and sports, as reflected in the case study chosen. The Ugolino Golf Club is visited by an average 10,000 foreign tourists a year; the features that make it stand out from other clubs are the high-difficulty courses and its proximity to the Renaissance city of Florence; numerous foreign tourists have listed the desire to visit Florence cultural monuments as a secondary reason. The club’s unique features include it in the world’s top 50. Since the time of its creation, 120 years ago, the Ugolino Club ensures a tourist stay that involves the harmonious blending of golf with relaxation and experience, offering tourists an opportunity to sample Tuscan cuisine and the famous Chianti wines. A form was used in analyzing the reasons expressed by tourists who come to golf on the club premises. The data obtained were processed using a factorial analysis, grouping the reasons according to the categories of main determining factors.

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Stakeholder’s perception of the influence exerted by the variability of the winter climatic conditions on the tourist activities within the Prahova Valley, Poiana Brasov mountain area

Ana-Irina DINCĂ, Camelia SURUGIU, Dana MICU

Abstract: The economics of climate change and climate change impact on various economic sectors is nowadays a subject of interest of research institutions, as well as of policy structures in different parts of the world. The tourism sector is one of the economic domains that face in many ways the impact of climate variability. The influence of climate variability on winter sports season and especially on skiing activities is one of the most studied links between climate change and tourism industry, having an important economic impact at regional and national level. In this light, a qualitative approach based on a “local hero” survey is the most suitable method to assess stakeholders’ perception on the influence of winter climate variability on tourism activities in the studied area.

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