Edition: 2007

The morphometry of the glacial cirques within the Gilort basin

Emil Marinescu

Abstract: On the southern slope of the Parang, the glacial landforms are represented by ten small cirques developed at the head of the tributaries of the Gilort that are analysed by means of 21 morphometrical variables. Most of the cirques display a prolonged shape (popularly called zănoage). Due to their obsequent character they are well-shaped upstream. The lower step, which develops below a large threshold in most of the cases, displays a greatly inclined slope, while the contour is less obvious because of the periglacial processes. The deepening degree and the declivity of the floor impose the morphographical characteristics of the cirques. From this point of view, we mention the slope cirques within the analysed basin, developed more as surface than as depth and displaying a great slope.

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Urban influences on the distribution of air temperature and relative humidity in Bucharest municipality. The heat island

Marin VLĂDUCU, Dumitru TÂŞTEA, Carmen-Sofia DRAGOTĂ, Gheorghe KUCSICSA, Ines GRIGORESCU

Abstract. Bucharest Municipality and its surroundings are situated in the South-Eastern part of the Romanian Plain in a temperate-continental climate, characterized by a continentalization tendency as a result of the climatic influences of transition in the West and excessive in the East. Therewith, one can identify remarkable differentiation between the urban space and the adjacent periurban space related to the manifestation of the heat island, which can be identified within the atmospheric space. The paper is based on statistical-climatologic analysis of the data issued from simultaneous microclimatic and topoclimatic measurements (air temperature and relative humidity of moist air) which permitted the identification of the heat island of Bucharest Municipality. The topoclimatic mapping of the horizontal profile of the values of these climatic parameters was achieved within peculiar season and weather types (serene and calm days; serene and windy days; cloudy or overcast sky and calm days; cloudy or overcast sky and windy days). The most significant thermal and hygric differentiation between the urban and suburban areas appear during summer and winter seasons on serene and calm days (without atmospheric dispersion) during morning and noon.The distribution maps of the couple air temperature/relative humidity of moist air within the above mentioned season and weather conditions defines an urban core with higher temperature and lower humidity values comparing to the suburban area. The shape and the scale of the heat island are mainly related to the seasonal variations, being in direct proportion with the spread of the urban area as a result of the high changes of the urban ecosystem.

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The pluviometric and thermal regime within the Oltenia plain

Alina VLĂDUŢ

Abstract: The Oltenia Plain represents the western extremity of the Romanian Plain. The analysis of the temperature and precipitation data (1984-2006) proved certain features of the climate in the region, which differentiate this sector of the Romanian Plain from its central and eastern sectors. At the same time, by comparing our results to the data mentioned in previously published studies, it clearly resulted a change of the thermal and pluviometric regime. Thus, the mean annual temperatures registered an increase, exceeding 11°C within the entire region, not only along the Danube Alluvial Plain, while the mean annual amounts of precipitation are characterized by great fluctuations. In the south-eastern extremity of the plain they are below 500 mm, while in the south-west and north they are close to 600 mm. The calculation of the positive and negative deviations, as well as of the moving averages illustrated the climatic instability of the region and an amplification of the duration and severity of the drought periods. Thus, the increase of the temperature was accompanied by a decrease of the precipitation amounts, tendency characterizing almost the entire analysed interval up to the level of 2005, when the huge quantity of rainfall induced lower temperatures and determined a change of both temperature and precipitation tendency. Even if we cannot speak about a desertification process, due to the short analysed period, our results proved the presence of certain climatic changes, which highly influence all the social-economic activities in the area.

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The abundant rainfalls from Oltenia between the 18th and the 23rd of september 2005

Ion MARINICĂ

Abstract: The present paper (a case study) aims at analyzing the synoptic conditions registered between the 18th and the 23rd of September 2005, which led to extremely abundant rainfalls fallen on 12-24 hour intervals and to severe floods in Oltenia, as well as within all the southern regions of the country. The registering of such a situation in the mentioned interval brought to the sixth flood wave in Romania, which had catastrophic consequences. Such synoptic situation usually appears in rainy years in autumn and display an unusual intensity of the precipitation phenomena once in 30-35 years. Rainy years are usually registered in the years characterized by a minimum solar activity. The study also approaches this issue from the point of view of the climatic risk. The results are important for the study of the climatic risk of the increased rainfalls as well as for the forecast activity.

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Disparities in the water supply system – Waste water sewerage in Filiasi

Oana IONUŞ

Abstract. Presently, the water supply and sewerage works in Filiasi town are operated by AQUATERM Filiaşi. But, due to some disfunctions in this system of infrastructure, the management of water resources at the level of the town is deficient. This fact is due, on one hand, by the quality of underground waters which do not comply because of the increase of the ammonia content over the admissible limits, and, on the other hand, by the quality of underground water which have a high content of iron and sulphur as they are in direct contact with the coil layers. Hereupon, the potable water supply for Filiaşi town is performed directly from the adduction pipe from Izvarna. The present paper aims to identify the disfuctionalities inside the water management system (under-dimensioning – the degradation of the existing networks and the low capacity of the waste water treatment plant) and in the same time to offer solutions for a better operation, because by improving the infrastructure for the water supply system, for the sewerage networks and waste water treatment plant will determine the rise of the quality of the environment factors and the life standards.

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The impact of volcanic eruptions on human activity

Sergey GOVORUSHKO
Abstract: Altogether about 2500 volcanoes exist on Earth, and during the last 3500 years, 959 of them erupted. About 360 mln. people live in dangerous proximity to actve volcanoes. On average about 50 volcanoes erupt each year. Catastrophic events may result from six volcanic processes, viz. 1) ejection of rock debris; 2) lava flows; 3) ejection of volcanic gases; 4) burning volcanic clouds; 5) volcanic landslides; 6) lahars. Each eruption manifests itself in several volcanic processes, but only one or two of them may prevail. First of all volcanic eruptions are dangerous for the following human activities: 1) transportation; 2) agriculture; 3) communication & electricity transmission lines; 4) residential building. Average annual mortality from them is about 800 persons and economic loss amount to $800-900 million.

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Cross-border national parks in Europe – present and perspective

Laura STUMBEA

Abstract: The development of the protected areas system in Europe led to collaborations among the administrations of the national parks in different countries. This was imposed by extension of the natural units that need to be protected even beyond the borderline of a certain country. The frequency of this kind of situations grows as many border sectors are natural (rivers, lakes, mountains and so on). In these conditions, a new category of parks appeared – the cross-border national parks – which require more involvement and effort on behalf of the respective countries, with the purpose of a better administration of the common natural and cultural patrimony. Countries, such as France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine cooperate (at the level of the administration and organization of the parks) in this respect. In Europe there are 10 cross-border national parks, most of them being situated within certain mountain units (the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Hercynian Massifs of the Central Europe) and the general tendency is given by their growing number. Besides the advantages offered by the protection of the natural environment, the cooperating states realize a material benefit, due to the fact that the so-constituted national parks attract a significant number of tourists from Europe and other continents.

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Ecological landfills: rules and structure

Ştefan NEGREANU, Sorin AVRAM

Abstract. From the point of view of waste integrated management, landfills are regarded as a high priority option by most of the public local administrations in Romania, but involve considerable economic investment and relatively large land areas. “Best available technology” becomes a mandatory option when opening such a site, as well as the choosing of the construction technology using the logic analysis Life Cycle Assessment, amortization of the investment, and also the environment protection. Community legislation provides a series of conditions, which must be followed, regarding location, structure, materials and general rules in terms of ambient impact studies, meant to ensure an increased degree of environmental protection accepting the increase in the limits of sustainable development.

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Toponyms, arguments of the inhabiting and social-economic development processes within Oltenia sub-carpathian depression area

Mihaela PERSU, Daniela NANCU

Abstract. In order to achieve the study of the toponyms of this sub-Carpathian region, there were thoroughly analysed the topographic maps at the scale 1:100,000; there were emphasized more than 200 names, half of which making reference to the landforms (oronyms) and the rest to water (hydronyms) and settlements (oiconyms). Many toponyms come from the autochthonous Thracian-Getic-Dacian lexical fund, hydronyms predominating. The oiconyms come from different lexical funds and they emphasize the variety of the settlements names. They evoke moments, happenings or historical characters, as well as occupations, traditional professions, thus contributing to a better understanding of the history of a particular region, of its economic and social potential.

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Considerations regarding the birth rate, fertility and nuptial rate of young population of Romania

Costela IORDACHE, Silvia TĂNASE

Abstract. The young population is a demographic component with multiple qualitative and quantitative valences. In 2006, the young population counted 5031.3 thousand people, representing 23.3 percent of the total Romanian population, with nearly 200 thousand less than in 1990. The decreasing trend of the cohort of young people is according to the downward trend of the total population of the country. Also, the statistics reveal the reduction of the fertility from 56.2 ‰ in 1990 to 39.5 ‰ in 2006. Between the analyzed limit, the number of the new born children was with 30 percent lower. The nuptial rates by age group and by sex registered the highest values in 20-24 year age group at the female population along the analyzed interval; at men, the same age group had a maximum value in the ninth decade of the last century. The economic difficulties have a negative impact on certain demographic phenomena.

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Changing social geography of Bangalore City – India: a study

B. ESWARAPPA

Abstract: Bangalore is a medieval city founded by Kempe Gowda in 1536 as a simple trading centre. Capital of Karnataka, the city is 5th largest state with many dubious distinctions (no. 2 city in come tax, no. 3 in number of automotives). It accounts for 24% of total urban population of Karnataka. The present study emphasizes the changes in the religions composition of the city by analyzing 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 census data and, also brings out the influence of recent exodus of in-migration on city’s religious composition. The religious groups in the city are Hindus (76%), Muslim (15%), Christians (6.3%), Jains (1.5%), Sikhs (0.1%), Buddhists (0.04%) and others (0.2%) who show remarkable growth of population in absolute terms. Another objective of this study is to understand the occupations of these religions groups in a fast growing metropolis.

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Suburbanization in small towns – Case study of Modřice u Brno


Antonín VAISHAR, Jana ZAPLETALOVÁ


Abstract.
The paper analyses how the suburbanization process impacts on small towns in
vicinity of a big town. Modřice near Brno was chosen as a case study. The course of residential,
commercial and industrial suburbanization is observed. A special commuting flows between
Brno and Modřice were stated. It was concluded that suburbanization directed to small towns or
large villages in the surroundings of a big city are more efficient from a set of reasons in
comparison with suburbanisation into small villages or even urban sprawl. An efficient public
transport network can be established, the suburbanized seats have their own basic infrastructure
not depending on a big city, areas in between suburbanised settlements are free for suburban
leisure activities. Following problems can occur: coexistence of original and new settlers,
possible loosing of local identity among others.

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The economic, social, demographic and environmental effects of the economic reorganization within Petrosani depression

Florentina-Cristina IANCU

Abstract. The paper synthesizes the multiple consequences induced by the restructuring process of mining industry within Petroşani Depression. The analysed area is an underdeveloped one because of its mono-industrial character resulting from the importance of the mining sector for the economy of the area. After 1990, coal exploitation was unprofitable and it was necessary to apply the industrial restructuring process that has left its marks not only on the economic sector (low income level, some mines were closed), but also socially (unemployment, family abandonment), environmentally (land degradation, land use change, floods, and pollution), demographically (decrease of birth rate, regression of evolution number of the population, decrease of active population rate, regressive migration). Even nowadays there is a dependence of the labour force on the mining industry (40 percent of the active population work in mining industry). Although it was necessary, the process has not been applied properly, causing the economic decline of the Jiu Valley. The environmental impact can only be diminished by ecological reconstruction and by implementing new production technologies. In this new stage of development, so called postindustrial, when the importance of industrial activity is decreasing, the settlements within Petroşani Depression must be considered beyond their industrial dimension, as cultural centres which have varied tourist resources that can attract many types of visitors.

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The relationship between the ecological agriculture and tourism in Turkey

Zerrin KARAKUZULU

Abstract. The potential and the abundances provided by the geography on which Turkey is located have made possible for centuries the agricultural activities to be continued on these lands, hundreds of varieties of agricultural goods to be produced, and a sum of knowledge to be built up in this context. Also, the possibilities provided by this geography have contributed to our country in covering great values as per historical and natural beauties. Both agriculture and tourism sectors still have a major role in Turkey’s economic and social life. However, in recent times both sectors have met new concepts owing to the rapid change process throughout the world. Within this change process, people have begun to tend to naturally produced goods in agriculture, and they have begun to seek new holiday approaches different from the traditional understanding as sea-sun-sand. In addition to these, the concepts of ecological agriculture and ecological tourism have come up, and they have been increasingly used. In our country, which has a noteworthy potential in both sectors, to assess, develop and sustain these new concepts will contribute much to our country in economic and social terms. A great part of Turkey should be used in this sense. As of 2007 in Turkey, there are nearly 70 ecological farms accepting tourists, most of which are in the Mediterranean Region. In these farms, the current potential should be well determined in order to provide the sustainability of tourism, to add new ones to these, and to consider the agriculture-tourism relationship more properly.

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A bird’s eye view of tourism industry of Karnataka – a planning perspective

A.K. WODEYAR

Abstract: The tourism is a social and economic phenomena which has become a fast growing global industry. The tourist attraction of Karnataka includes natural scenery, attractive customs and the way of life , wild life sanctuaries, rivers and waterfalls, green mountains, beautiful creation of the man, traditional art and dancing programmes and typical fairs and festivals. In Karnataka, there are more than 257 identified tourist centers, which are located in 27 districts. The main tourist centers that have historical events to be considered as spot of world of heritage are: Halebeedu, Belur, Shravanbelgola, Srirangapatna and Sringeri. Also, the tourist traffic to Karnataka is on steady increase since last three decades.

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The problems that are faced in the turkish plateaus during the transition period from cattle breeding to tourism

Meryem HAYIR, Çiğdem Demir TONGUÇ

Abstract. Transhumance is a traditional economic activity based on stock breeding that has been carried out for many years in Turkey. Turkey naturally has an uneven topography and has many plateaus due to its hilly areas. Even though there may be differences in the regional scale, tourism activities increased in the areas where cattle breeding was done until 1980. Plateau tourism can be considered as an important part of nature tourism. Damaging the nature in these areas will risk the growing tourism potential as well as the breeding areas of the animals that are raised as a traditional economic activity. Transhumance activities in the Keremali Mountain located on the western part of North Anatolian mountains will be studied due to its closeness and easy access to the North Western part, which is a highly populated area in Turkey. After the tourism potential of the plateaus in the area will be evaluated, the most important plateau in the region: Çiğdem Plateau will be studied as an example.The people who come from Sakarya, İzmit, İstanbul, Düzce settlements take (regreatif) short term advantage of the Keremali Plateau. However, in order to keep nature tourism going, accommodation possibilities in the area should be increased without harming the nature and short term tourism should be converted to long term tourism.

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Promotion of intangible heritage in tourism through the medium of dance education

Guru Naatyavidhushi JAYA

Abstract. Culture and cultural heritage are the back bone of any society and a prominent resource of tourism. Fine arts are the integral part of culture tourism. These fine arts are classified as audio – visual and performing arts. Dance, dram and music are the major component of performing arts, be they classical, semi classical, folk, theatre, modern and contemporary. Here classical dance education is based on two inseparable factors like two faces of the same coin namely entertainment based and value based. Cultural and heritage tourism is growing very fast at international level. It has to expand and extend its services effectively. To achieve its goal, tourism is confining merely to entertainment. If tourism wants to surge forward and expand further, it has to rise from the entertainment level and adopt the other side of the coin of dance education, which is value based and contributes immensely to the sustained growth of tourism.

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Religious tourism as post-modern tourism on the territory of Fruska gora

Nada VIDIC

Abstract. Fruska gora (Alma Mons) is a mountain (538 meters high – 78 kilometers long) in the south- west part of Vojvodina European region, in the north of Serbia. Its northern border is the Danube River. One part of Fruska gora is the National park (25,348 hectares). The territory of Fruska gora is an attractive and developed tourism destination. It is rich in different natural and cultural tourism resources, which are in perfect harmony. Within Fruska gora (500 squares kilometres), there are 16 middle century monasteries – centres of religious tourism. Monasteries were built in the 15th century as centres of culture and spirituality and all of them are revitalized. They are important cultural monuments of unique architecture with invaluable middle century icons from the artistic point of view that are preserved in religious libraries. Religious tourism in all monasteries is uprising and has the multicultural dialog mission- civilization epoch, cultural styles. Religious tourism is initiated by individuals, families, and tour operators. We presented qualitative characteristics of religious tourism on this territory: tourist profile, socio-cultural, marketing, management, weakness and opportunities. Religions tourism on Fruska gora is in expansion and is improving the territory in many ways.

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Garnic, the specificity of a czech community in Romania

Costela IORDACHE

Abstract. The paper aims at rendering the physical-geographical and social-economic features of a Czech settlement from our country. Gârnic village is located in the South-West of Romania, in the South of Banat, within the area of the Locva Mountains. It is one of the seventh communities with compact Czech population that still preserves the ethno-cultural and linguistic peculiarities very well. There are analysed the natural landscape that favoured inhabitance, the population’s history, the demographic and economic potential, as well as certain ethnographical features (traditional ways of using water, national costumes, specific customs and traditions).

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Criteria and strategies of Romania’s accession to the European Union

Ana-Maria ROANGHES-MUREANU

Abstract: Every member state of the EU has to assume certain responsibilities and to apply certain measures within some specific fields. Romania is one of these states, which has to apply its politics at a national level. Even if there were made important efforts to accomplish this task, there are still some small chapters that require more work.

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Aspects regarding the modernization of the didactic technology and strategy in the upper educational system, a support in the students’ initial training as future geography teachers

Viorica TOMESCU, Cornel GOLEA, Ioan MARINESCU, Alina VLĂDUŢ, Cristina MARA

Abstract. The present paper aims at defining the concept of modernization of the didactic technology and strategy précising the sense of the two notions, respectively didactic technology and learning technical means. There are exemplified certain models of upper education didactic strategies used in the teaching-learning process with direct reference to Geography. Their purpose is the development of the cognitive interests, of knowledge accessibility, as well as to make the students sensitive, aware, and able to apply them during their pedagogical training and in their future activity in the educational field.

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